# Bitcoin Macroeconomics - Bitcoin Scammers Fbi List ...

Something that NO core devs or bitcoin elite are discussing: The Macroeconomic implications of bitcoin

What will bitcoin's role in the future be? What is to be its relationship between the existing financial system and bitcoin? How will bitcoin affect our banking system and the future quality of our legacy currencies?
There isn't a person in this field willing to discuss this because there isn't a person in this field that has any idea what they are talking about.
When someone stands up to say something smart about bitcoin, ask them to speak of the macro economic implications and they will sit down.
submitted by pokertravis to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Something that NO core devs or bitcoin elite are discussing: The Macroeconomic implications of bitcoin /r/Bitcoin

Something that NO core devs or bitcoin elite are discussing: The Macroeconomic implications of bitcoin /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Recently I decided to change all my professional and personal plans. I left my job. I left my friends and family. I left my country. All for Bitcoin. Here is why.

Discovering my core values
I was born and raised in an upper-middle income family in Mexico City under catholic values but turned agnostic as I grew older. I kept the values that made sense, such as the importance of charity and giving back, and threw away the ones that were outdated, such as the focus on guilt as a motivator of change.
As a kid, I remember how conflicting it was to see other kids working in the streets, starving, drugged, and abused. I couldn’t understand why they couldn’t focus on their education the way I did. That planted a seed in my spirit that still grows.
Seeing in economics hope
As a teenager, I entered the rabbit hole of economics with hope. Economics seemed to be this mystical force capable of solving the world’s biggest problems: poverty, corruption, global warming, and many more. I knew that the way we were doing economics was wrong and I wanted to change that.
Just think about the horrible things that have been done under the name of communism, such as the Cambodian genocide, or how the United States, the crown jewel of capitalism, makes of fundamental rights, such as healthcare and education, profitable businesses instead of granting everyone equal access to them.
While studying my undergrad, I quickly fell out of love with the idealistic idea of economics as an almighty force that can conquer all evils. I saw how economics was often used as an excuse to force simplistic representations of culture and society into complex problems. I never understood how that approach of thinking about problems in a vacuum could be useful.
Understanding the power of financial services
Later in my life, while working as a consultant for McKinsey, I finally understood the importance of financial institutions. They decide who should do business and have access to goods and services and who shouldn’t. And financial institutions don’t grant everyone that right. It was clear to me that that was a problem that needed fixing. That’s why I devoted so much time studying this industry back then.
I came to Berkeley to Business School more out of inertia than out of will. I was sponsored by McKinsey and had an offer to go back. I didn’t know exactly what to do with the experience, but I knew I wanted to keep exploring financial services. During my MBA, I heard about Bitcoin in a serious academic environment for the first time and it immediately caught my interest.
Via Berkeley-SkyDeck, UC Berkeley's accelerator, I heard about lastbit (lastbit.io) for the first time. I read everything I could about the project and about the founder, this cool, heavy-metal lover, who wanted to change the world with the disruptive power of Bitcoin. I could see myself in him. I had to meet him. After failing to meet him in person at an event, I just cold emailed him praying for him to answer. He did.
That’s how I came in contact with Prashanth for the first time, this impressive 25-year-old genius who managed to get Charlie Lee on board of his project with little more than a prototype. There’s a reason why he managed to do this. Today Bitcoin is almost impossible to spend. With Prashanth’s his solution, anyone will be able to swipe a card or tap their phone and pay with Bitcoin instantly anywhere where they are able to pay with their credit card today. Something not so long ago possible only in bitcoiners’ dreams. Through Prashanth I finally understood what Bitcoin really is. It blew my mind.
Unveiling the real meaning of Bitcoin
Bitcoin is not an investment asset, it’s the possibility of a new social contract. Bitcoin is a decentralized, transparent, and auditable network to store and transmit value to which everyone in the world can have access to. This presents a real opportunity to redefine money, which today is inherently centralized, first by central banks, and then by financial institutions. The centralization of money has at least three critical problems that Bitcoin solves.
First, there is a macroeconomic problem that has to do with monetary policy and that today with the COVID-19 economic crisis is more relevant than ever. Money is supposed to be a reflection of real economic value, but some central banks print money arbitrarily. Bitcoin’s monetary supply is limited by design. Second, centralized financial services are discriminatory and don’t allow free access to everyone. Bitcoin is universal and free. This means that for the first time in human history, everyone will be able to participate in the global economy. And participation is the pillar of democracy. Third, central authorities control private information. The recent attacks to high profile account on Twitter illustrate how vulnerable private information is when stored in centralized networks. Bitcoin allows people to have full ownership and control of their personal and financial information, protecting both their identity and their wealth.
As such, Bitcoin emerged in front of my eyes as a way to instrument basic democratic principles in a way in which everyone can have equal representation. Money as we know it will soon be a thing of the past because money as we know it not fair nor egalitarian and now people can choose.
I had to quit McKinsey. I had to leave Mexico. I had to stay with lastbit. I had to give this project my all.
submitted by bm_bkly to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Mega eTextbooks release thread (part-28)! Find your textbooks here between $5-$25 :)

Please find the list below:
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  2. Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd Edition: Basil Jarvis
  3. Revel for Social Problems, 14th Edition: Stanley Eitzen & Maxine Baca Zinn & Kelly Ei Smith
  4. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Pearson New International Edition, 3rd Edition: Gary Dessler
  5. Economics Today: The Micro View, 18th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  6. Employment Law for Business, 8th Edition: Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Laura Hartman
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  8. Project Management in Construction, 7th Edition: Sidney Levy
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  15. Human Resource Management, 13th Edition: Gary Dessler
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  18. Hendee's Radiation Therapy Physics, 4th Edition: Todd Pawlicki & Daniel J. Scanderbeg & George Starkschall
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  21. Chemistry of Metalloproteins: Problems and Solutions in Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition: Joseph J. Stephanos & Anthony W. Addison
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  26. Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery, 1st Edition: Marcelo E. Tolmasky & Juan C. Alonso
  27. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Global Edition, 12th Edition: Michael R. Solomon
  28. Project Management Case Studies, 5th Edition: Harold Kerzner
  29. Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Rodney A. Rhoades & David R. Bell
  30. Essentials of Contemporary Management, 7th Edition: Gareth Jones & Jennifer George
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  32. Principles of Economics, 2nd Edition: Lee Coppock & Dirk Mateer
  33. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 2nd Edition: Richard J. Lamont & George N. Hajishengallis & Howard F. Jenkinson
  34. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine, 5th Edition: Scott W. Atlas
  35. Accounting Information Systems: Controls and Processes, 3rd Edition: Leslie Turner & Andrea B. Weickgenannt & Mary Kay Copeland
  36. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Sustainable Value Creation, 5th Edition: David Chandler
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  38. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy And Its Geostrategic Imperatives, 1st Edition: Zbigniew Brzezinski
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  40. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues, 1st Edition: Fred Hossler
  41. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs, 1st Edition: Stephen L. Doggett & Dini M. Miller & Chow-Yang Lee
  42. Patterns of World History: Volume One: To 1600, 1st Edition: Peter von Sivers & Charles A. Desnoyers & George B. Stow
  43. Genitourinary Imaging: A Core Review, 1st Edition: Matthew Davenport
  44. Evidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Edition: Errol R. Norwitz & Carolyn M. Zelop & David A. Miller & David L. Keefe
  45. Zoology, 10th Edition: Stephen Miller & John Harley
  46. Radical and Reconstructive Gynecologic Cancer Surgery, 1st Edition: Robert Bristow & Dennis Chi
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  48. Management & Cost Accounting, 6th Edition: Alnoor Bhimani
  49. Elements of Modern Algebra, 8th Edition: Linda Gilbert
  50. Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 4th Edition: Katie Evans & Debra Nizette & Anthony O'Brien
  51. Molecular Biology: Different Facets, 1st Edition: Anjali Priyadarshini & Prerna Pandey
  52. Elementary Number Theory, 7th Edition: David Burton
  53. Accounting Information Systems, 14th Edition: Marshall B. Romney & Paul J. Steinbart
  54. Microeconomics, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Robert Pindyck & Daniel Rubinfeld
  55. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Demystified, 1st Edition: Jim Keogh
  56. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich & Michael Peters & Dean Shepherd
  57. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 26th Edition: Kim E. Barrett & Susan M. Barman & Jason Yuan & Heddwen L. Brooks
  58. Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: A life course approach, 1st Edition: Eric A.P. Steegers & Bart C.J.M. Fauser & Carina G.J.M. Hilders
  59. Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 8th Edition: James L. Meriam & L. G. Kraige & J. N. Bolton
  60. Basic Concepts of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, 8th Edition: Louise Rebraca Shives
  61. Beckmann and Ling's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8th Edition: Robert Casanova
  62. Biology: Concepts and Applications, 10th Edition: Cecie Starr & Christine Evers & Lisa Starr
  63. Estimating in Building Construction, 9th Edition: Steven J. Peterson & Frank R. Dagostino
  64. The Big Back Book: Tips & Tricks for Therapists, 1st Edition: Jane Johnson
  65. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  66. Poisoning and Drug Overdose, 7th Edition: Kent Olson & Ilene Anderson & Neal Benowitz & Paul Blanc
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  68. Experimental Psychology, 7th Edition: Anne Myers & Christine H. Hansen
  69. Marketing: An Introduction, 13th Edition: Gary Armstrong & Philip Kotler
  70. Gray's Anatomy for Students: With Student Consult, 3rd Edition: Richard Drake & A. Wayne Vogl & Adam W. M. Mitchell
  71. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition: David H. Chestnut & Cynthia A Wong & Lawrence C Tsen & Warwick D Ngan Kee & Yaakov Beilin & Jill Mhyre
  72. Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 5th Edition: John W. Moore & Conrad L. Stanitski
  73. Head, Neck and Dental Emergencies, 2nd Edition: Mike Perry
  74. Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children, 10th Edition: Marilyn J. Hockenberry & David Wilson
  75. Sports Emergency Care: A Team Approach, 3rd Edition: Robb Rehberg & Jeff G. Konin
  76. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th Edition: Stephen Spinelli & Rob Adams
  77. Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research, 5th Edition: Mary de Chesnay & Barbara Anderson
  78. Geometry: The Line and the Circle: Maureen T. Carroll & Elyn Rykken
  79. Histories of Human Engineering: Tact and Technology: Maarten Derksen
  80. Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future, 1st Edition: Ilan Chabay & Martin Frick & Jennifer Helgeson
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  82. Theoretical Physics 9: Fundamentals of Many-body Physics, 2nd Edition: Wolfgang Nolting & William D. Brewer
  83. Introduction to Programming with C++, 3rd Edition: Y. Daniel Liang
  84. Dental Emergencies, 1st Edition: Mark Greenwood & Ian Corbett
  85. Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere, 2nd Edition: Guido Visconti
  86. Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 3rd Edition: William L. Briggs & Lyle Cochran & Bernard Gillett & Eric Schulz
  87. Educating Physical Therapists, 1st Edition: Gail Jensen
  88. Strategic Developments in Eurasia After 11 September, 1st Edition: Shireen Hunter
  89. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics, 4th Edition: Dean Harris
  90. Transitioning from RN to MSN: Principles of Professional Role Development: Brenda Scott & Mindy Thompson
  91. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, 3rd Edition: Lisa M. Lee & Steven M. Teutsch & Stephen B. Thacker & Michael E. St. Louis
  92. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 6th Edition: Ron Larson & Betsy Farber
  93. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity, 6th Canadian Edition: Spencer A. Rathus & Jeffrey S. Nevid & Lois Fichner-Rathus & Alex McKay & Robin Milhausen
  94. Becoming Your Own Banker, 6th Edition: R. Nelson Nash
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  98. Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems, 3rd Edition: Robert W. Proctor & Trisha Van Zandt
  99. The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics, 17th Edition: Louis Schubert & Thomas R. Dye & Harmon Zeigler
  100. Understanding Earth, 7th Edition: John Grotzinger
  101. Nursing Research in Canada: Methods, Critical Appraisal, and Utilization, 4th Edition: Geri LoBiondo-Wood & Judith Haber & Cherylyn Cameron & Mina Singh
  102. The Philosophy of Film, 1st Edition: Thomas E. Wartenberg & Angela Curran
  103. Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness, 4th Edition: Tener Goodwin Veenema
  104. Language in Mind: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics, 2nd Edition: Julie Sedivy
  105. Medical Anthropology: A Biocultural Approach, 3rd Edition: Andrea S. Wiley & John S. Allen
  106. Exploring Biology in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition: Murray P. Pendarvis & John L. Crawley
  107. Guide to Networking Essentials, 8th Edition: Greg Tomsho
  108. Social Psychology: A Storytelling Approach, 2nd Edition: Leonard Newman & Ralph Erber
  109. Managing Conflict: An Introspective Journey to Negotiating Skills, 1st Edition: Dorothy Balancio
  110. Environmental Change and Challenge: A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition: Philip Dearden & Bruce Mitchell
  111. Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, 1st Edition: David Eagleman & Jonathan Downar
  112. Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets Study Guide: Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Test Review for the Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam: Mometrix Media & Cardiac Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets
  113. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, The Essentials, 9th Edition: Christine Barbour & Gerald Wright
  114. Principles of Environmental Science, 9th Edition: William Cunningham & Mary Cunningham
  115. Thomas' Calculus, 14th Edition: Joel R. Hass & Christopher E. Heil & Maurice D. Weir
  116. Pharmacology for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians, 1st Edition: Leland Norman Holland & Michael P. Adams & Jeanine Lynn Brice & Heather V. LeBlanc
  117. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 9th Edition: Abul K. Abbas & Andrew H. Lichtman & Shiv Pillai
  118. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 11th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  119. Jews, Christians, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions, 2nd Edition: John Corrigan & Frederick Denny & Martin S Jaffee & Carlos Eire
  120. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges, 9th Edition: Beth Black
  121. Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques, 4th Edition: Vernon J. Geberth
  122. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems, 7th Edition: Mikell P. Groover
  123. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, 7th Edition: Benjamin A. Pierce
  124. Computer Science Illuminated, 7th Edition: Nell Dale & John Lewis
  125. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 8th Edition: John Baylis & Steve Smith & Patricia Owens
  126. Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition: S. Marc Breedlove & Neil V. Watson
  127. Canadian Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach, 12th Edition: Hermann Schwind & Krista Uggerslev & Terry Wagar & Neil Fassina
  128. Brief Principles of Macroeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  129. Living in the Environment, 4th Canadian Edition: G. Miller & Dave Hackett & Carl Wolfe
  130. Principles of Economics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  131. Principles of Microeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  132. Child Development, 9th Edition: Laura E. Berk
  133. Home, School, and Community Collaboration: Culturally Responsive Family Engagement, 4th Edition: Kathy Beth Grant & Julie A. Ray
  134. Set Lighting Technician's Handbook, 4th Edition: Harry Box
  135. Clinical Nurse Leader Certification Review, 2nd Edition: Cynthia R. King
  136. Basic Chemistry, 4th Edition: Karen C. Timberlake & William Timberlake
  137. Sparks & Taylor's Nursing Diagnosis Pocket Guide, 3rd Edition: Linda Phelps
  138. Family Theories: Foundations and Applications, 1st Edition: Katherine R. Allen & Angela C. Henderson
  139. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, 7th Edition: Richard Bulliet & Pamela Crossley & Daniel Headrick & Steven Hirsch & Lyman Johnson
  140. Sociology in Action: A Canadian Perspective, 3rd Edition: Tami Bereska & Diane Symbaluk
  141. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 12th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  142. Introduction to Food Science and Food Systems, 2nd Edition: Rick Parker & Miriah Pace
  143. Liaisons, Student Edition: An Introduction to French, 3rd Edition: Wynne Wong & Stacey Weber-Fève & Bill VanPatten
  144. Zuckerman Parker Handbook of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics for Primary Care, 4th Edition: Marilyn Augustyn & Barry Zuckerman
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  146. The Biological Basis of Mental Health, 3rd Edition: William T. Blows
  147. Developing and Managing Electronic Collections: The Essentials: Peggy Johnson
  148. Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500, 10th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  149. Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know, 1st Edition: Malcolm Gladwell
  150. Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Edition: Sue E. Huether & Kathryn L. McCance
  151. Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective, 5th edition: Dianne Draper & Ann Zimmerman
  152. Criminal Law: Cases and Materials, 8th Edition: John Kaplan & Robert Weisberg & Guyora Binder
  153. A Photographic Atlas of Histology, 2nd Edition: Michael J Leboffe
  154. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 3rd Edition: Barbara A. Weightman
  155. Climate Change Biology, 1st Edition: Jonathan A. Newman & Madhur Anand & Hugh A. L. Henry & Shelley L. Hunt & Ze'ev Gedalof
  156. The Power of Critical Thinking: 5th Canadian Edition: Chris MacDonald and Lewis Vaughn
  157. Principles of Fire Behavior and Combustion, 4th Edition: Richard Gann & Raymond Friedman
  158. Informatics Nurse Exam Secrets Study Guide: Informatics Test Review for the Informatics Nurse Certification Exam: Informatics Exam Secrets Test Prep Team
  159. General Chemistry, 10th Edition: Darrell Ebbing & Steven D. Gammon
  160. A Practical Guide to Computer Forensics Investigations, 1st Edition: Darren R. Hayes
  161. Basic Biomechanics, 8th Edition: Susan Hall
  162. Essay Writing for Canadian Students, 8th Edition: Roger Davis & Laura K. Davis
  163. Biology, 11th Edition: Peter Raven & George Johnson & Kenneth Mason & Jonathan Losos & Susan Singer
  164. Molecular Imaging, 1st Edition: Ralph Weissleder& Brian D. Ross & Alnawaz Rehemtulla & Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
  165. Criminology, 4th Edition: Frank Schmalleger
  166. A Theory of Truthmaking: Metaphysics, Ontology, and Reality: Jamin Asay
  167. The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding, 1st Edition: Michael J. Raven
  168. Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 5th Edition: David C. Lay & Steven R. Lay & Judi J. McDonald
  169. Essentials of Human Communication, 9th Edition: Joseph A. DeVito
  170. Economics: Principles, Applications, and Tools, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Arthur O'Sullivan & Steven Sheffrin & Stephen Perez
  171. Global Health 101, 3rd Edition: Richard Skolnik
  172. Mathematical Proofs: A Transition to Advanced Mathematics, 4th Edition: Gary Chartrand & Albert D. Polimeni & Ping Zhang
  173. Concepts in Strategic Management and Business Policy: Globalization, Innovation and Sustainability, 15th Edition, Global Edition: Thomas L. Wheelen & J. David Hunger & Alan N. Hoffman & Charles E. Bamford
  174. Chemistry: The Central Science, 14th Edition, Global Edition: Theodore E. Brown & H. Eugene LeMay & Bruce E. Bursten & Catherine Murphy & Patrick Woodward & Matthew E. Stoltzfus
  175. Biopsychology, 10th Edition, Global Edition: John P. J. Pinel & Steven Barnes
  176. Electric Circuits, 11th Edition: James W. Nilsson & Susan Riedel
  177. Keeping the Republic; Power and Citizenship in American Politics, the Essentials, 8th Edition: Christine Barbour & Gerald C Wright
  178. Applied Behavior Analysis: Pearson New International Edition, 2nd Edition: John O. Cooper & Timothy E. Heron & William L. Heward
  179. Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice, 7th Edition, Global Edition: William Stallings
  180. Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 9th Edition, Global Edition: William Stallings
  181. Options, Futures, and Other Derivatives, 9th Edition, Global Edition: John C. Hull
  182. Invitation to the Psychology of Religion, 3rd Edition: Raymond F. Paloutzian
  183. Valuation: The Art and Science of Corporate Investment Decisions, 3rd Edition: Sheridan Titman
  184. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology, 5th Edition: Richard J. Johnson & John Feehally & Jurgen Floege
  185. Miller & Freund's Probability and Statistics for Engineers, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Richard Johnson & Irwin Miller & John Freund
  186. Exploring Strategy: Text and Cases, 11th Edition: Gerry Johnson & Richard Whittington & Patrick Regnér & Kevan Scholes & Duncan Angwin
  187. Economics for Business, 7th Edition: John Sloman
  188. Essentials of Economics, 7th Edition: John Sloman & Dean Garratt
  189. Economics, 9th Edition: John Sloman & Dean Garratt & Alison Wride
  190. Essential Economics for Business, 5th Edition: Johnsloman & Jones Elizabeth
  191. Finite Mathematics, 7th Edition: Stefan Waner & Steven Costenoble
  192. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Surveillance, Security, and Privacy, 1st Edition: Bruce A. Arrigo
  193. Evolution, 4th Edition: Douglas J. Futuyma & Mark Kirkpatrick
  194. Adult Development and Aging, 7th Edition: John C. Cavanaugh & Fredda Blanchard-Fields
  195. Foundations of Finance, 9th Edition, Global Edition: Arthur J. Keown & John D Martin & J. William Petty
  196. Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript: With jQuery, CSS & HTML5, 4th Edition: Robin Nixon
  197. Head First Learn to Code: A Learner's Guide to Coding and Computational Thinking, 1st Edition: Eric Freeman
  198. Learning Swift: Building Apps for macOS, iOS, and Beyond, 3rd Edition: Jonathon Manning & Paris Buttfield-Addison & Tim Nugent
  199. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, & Management, 12th Edition: Carlos Coronel & Steven Morris
  200. Introduction to Solid Modeling Using SolidWorks, 13th Edition: William Howard & Joseph Musto
  201. Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, 4th Edition: Ulrich Rohde & Jerry Whitaker & Hans Zahnd
  202. Connect Core Concepts in Health, 15th Edition: Paul Insel & Walton Roth
  203. On Course: Strategies for Creating Success in College and in Life, 8th Edition: Skip Downing
  204. Vander's Human Physiology, 15th Edition: Eric Widmaier & Hershel Raff & Kevin Strang
  205. Biology, 4th Edition: Robert Brooker & Eric Widmaier & Linda Graham & Peter Stiling
  206. The Essentials of Statistics: A Tool for Social Research, 4th Edition: Joseph F. Healey
  207. Oracle 12c: SQL, 3rd Edition: Joan Casteel
  208. Global Business Today, 10th Edition: Charles Hill & G. Tomas M. Hult
  209. Project Management: The Managerial Process, 7th Edition: Erik Larson & Clifford Gray
  210. Organizational Behavior: A Practical, Problem-Solving Approach, 2nd Edition: Angelo Kinicki & Mel Fugate
  211. International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavior, 10th Edition: Fred Luthans & Jonathan Doh
  212. CorelDRAW X8: The Official Guide, 12th Edition: Gary David Bouton
  213. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: An Interactive Approach, 2nd Edition: Robert Hawkes & Javed Iqbal & Firas Mansour & Marina Milner-Bolotin & Peter Williams
  214. Programmable Logic Controllers, 5th Edition: Frank Petruzella
  215. Foundations in Microbiology, 10th Edition: Kathleen Park Talaro & Barry Chess
  216. Applied Numerical Methods with MATLAB for Engineers and Scientists, 4th Edition: Steven Chapra
  217. Tonal Harmony, 8th Edition: Stefan Kostka & Dorothy Payne & Byron Almén
  218. Discrete Mathematics, 8th Edition: Richard Johnsonbaugh
  219. Bates' Pocket Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking, 8th Edition: Lynn S. Bickley
  220. NANDA International Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions & Classification 2018-2020, 11th Edition: T. Heather Herdman & Shigemi Kamitsuru & Heather T. Herdman
  221. Biology: Concepts and Investigations, 4th Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  222. Biology: Concepts and Investigations, 3rd Edition: Mariëlle Hoefnagels
  223. Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues, 8th Edition, Global Edition: Michael D. Johnson
  224. Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills, 5th Canadian Edition: Joseph A. DeVito & Rena Shimoni & Dawne Clark
  225. The Interpersonal Communication Book, 14th Edition, Global Edition: Joseph A. DeVito
  226. Computational Systems Pharmacology and Toxicology, 1st Edition: Rudy J Richardson & Dale E Johnson & Noffisat Oki & David Faulkner
  227. Shelly Cashman Series Microsoft Office 365 & Office 2019 Introductory, 1st Edition: Sandra Cable & Steven M. Freund & Ellen Monk & Susan L. Sebok & Joy L. Starks
  228. The Practice of Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy: Creating Connection, 2nd Edition: Susan M. Johnson
  229. The Marriage Clinic: A Scientifically Based Marital Therapy, 1st Edition: John M. Gottman
  230. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy with Couples and Families: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians, 1st Edition: Frank M. Dattilio & Aaron T. Beck
  231. International Marketing, 17th Edition: Philip R. Cateora & John Graham & Mary C Gilly
  232. Kaplan and Sadock's Concise Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry, 3rd Edition: Benjamin Sadock & Virginia Alcott Sadock
  233. Anthropology, 14th Edition: Carol R. Ember & Melvin Ember & Peter N. Peregrine
  234. The Men They Will Become: The Nature And Nurture Of Male Character: Eli Newberger
  235. Accounting, 27th Edition: Carl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  236. ICD-10-CM 2019: The Complete Official Codebook, 1st Edition: American Medical Association
  237. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology, 12th Edition, Global Edition: Elaine N. Marieb & Suzanne M. Keller
  238. Early Childhood Education Today, 14th Edition: George S Morrison
  239. Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Program Bitcoin from Scratch, 1st Edition: Jimmy Song
  240. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes, 4th Edition: David White & James Drummond & Clay Fuqua
  241. Environmental Microbiology, 3rd Edition: Ian L. Pepper & Charles P. Gerba & Terry J. Gentry
  242. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction, 1st Edition: Michael J. Waites & Neil L. Morgan & John S. Rockey & Gary Higton
  243. Introduction to Econometrics, Updated 3rd Edition, Global Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  244. Introduction to Econometrics, 3rd Edition: James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson
  245. Expert Oracle Application Express, 2nd Edition: Doug Gault & Dimitri Gielis & Martin DSouza & Roel Hartman
  246. The Art of Reasoning: An Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking, 4th Edition: David Kelley
  247. Physics, 5th Edition: James S. Walker
  248. Applied Fluid Mechanics, 7th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  249. Applied Strength of Materials, SI Units Version, 6th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  250. Social Psychology, 12th Edition: David Myers & Jean Twenge
  251. Applied Strength of Materials, 6th Edition: Robert Mott & Joseph A. Untener
  252. Foundations of Nursing Research, 7th Edition: Rose Marie Nieswiadomy & Catherine Bailey
  253. Molecular Cell Biology, 8th Edition: Harvey Lodish & Arnold Berk & Chris A. Kaiser & Monty Krieger & Anthony Bretscher
  254. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, 6th Edition: Robert L. Mott & Edward M. Vavrek & Jyhwen Wang
  255. DeVita, Hellman, and Rosenberg's Cancer, 11th Edition: Vincent T. DeVita & Steven A. Rosenberg & Theodore S. Lawrence
  256. Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide, 3rd Edition: Markus Raffel & Christian E. Willert & Fulvio Scarano & Christian J. Kähler
  257. Smith's Textbook of Endourology, 4th Edition: Arthur D. Smith & Glenn Preminger & Gopal H. Badlani & Louis R. Kavoussi
  258. College Algebra with Modeling & Visualization, 6th Edition: Gary K. Rockswold
  259. Financial Accounting Theory, 7th Edition: William R. Scott
  260. Biology Now, 2nd Edition: Anne Houtman & Megan Scudellari & Cindy Malone
  261. Psychological Science, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Diane Halpern
  262. The Handbook of Technical Writing, 11th Edition: Gerald J. Alred & Charles T. Brusaw & Walter E. Oliu
  263. A Graphical Approach to College Algebra, 6th Edition: John Hornsby & Margaret L. Lial & Gary K. Rockswold
  264. Business Analytics, 4th Edition: Jeffrey D. Camm & James J. Cochran & Michael J. Fry & Jeffrey W. Ohlmann
  265. Biological Psychology, 13th Edition: James W. Kalat
  266. Business Communication Today, 14th Edition: Courtland L. Bovee & John V. Thill
  267. Geosystems Core, 1st Edition: Robert W. Christopherson & Stephen Cunha & Charles E. Thomsen & Ginger Birkeland
  268. Principles of Information Security, 6th Edition: Michael E. Whitman & Herbert J. Mattord
  269. Financial & Managerial Accounting, 14th Edition: Carl S. Warren & James M. Reeve & Jonathan Duchac
  270. Corporate Finance: Theory and Practice, 5th Edition: Pierre Vernimmen & Pascal Quiry & Maurizio Dallocchio & Yann Le Fur & Antonio Salvi
  271. Introductory Statistics, 10th Edition: Neil A. Weiss
  272. Introduction to Cryptography: Principles and Applications, 3rd Edition: Hans Delfs & Helmut Knebl
  273. Business Essentials, 8th Canadian Edition: Ronald J. Ebert & Ricky W. Griffin & Frederick A. Starke & George Dracopoulos
  274. Introduction to Mathematical Statistics, 8th Edition: Robert V. Hogg & Joseph W. McKean & Allen T. Craig
  275. The Routledge Companion to Business Ethics, 1st Edition: Eugene Heath & Byron Kaldis & Alexei Marcoux
  276. Geosystems An Introduction to Physical Geography, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Ginger H. Birkel & Robert W. Christopherson
  277. Scientific American Environmental Science for a Changing World, 2nd Edition: Jeneen InterlandI & Anne Houtman
  278. Precalculus, 10th Edition: Ron Larson
  279. The Human Brain Book: An Illustrated Guide to its Structure, Function, and Disorders, New Edition: Rita Carter
  280. Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, 8th Edition: James F. Shackelford
  281. Adobe Dreamweaver CC Classroom in a Book, 1st Edition: Jim Maivald
  282. Trigonometry, 11th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & David I. Schneider & Callie Daniels
  283. Investment Banks, Hedge Funds, and Private Equity, 3rd Edition: David P. Stowell
  284. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry & George R. Mangun
  285. Cognitive Neuroscience: The Biology of the Mind, 5th Edition: Michael Gazzaniga & Richard B. Ivry (Author), George R. Mangun (Author)
  286. Project Management Theory and Practice, 3rd Edition: Gary L. Richardson & Brad M. Jackson
  287. Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function, 8th Edition: K. Peter C. Vollhardt & Neil E. Schore
  288. Read, Reason, Write: An Argument Text and Read, 11th Edition: Dorothy Seyler
  289. Fundamentals of Management: Management Myths Debunked!, Global Edition, 10th Edition: Stephen P Robbins & David A. De Cenzo & Mary Coulter
  290. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, Global Edition, 7th Edition: James Kurose & Keith Ross
  291. An Introduction to Banking: Principles, Strategy and Risk Management, 2nd Edition: Moorad Choudhry
  292. The Immune System, 4th Edition: Peter Parham
  293. Biochemistry: Concepts and Connections, Global Edition, 1st Edition: Dean R. Appling & Spencer J. Anthony-Cahill & Christopher K. Mathews
  294. Writing about Writing, 3rd Edition: Elizabeth Wardle & Douglas Downs
  295. Data Wrangling with JavaScript, 1st Edition: Ashley Davis
  296. Experience Psychology, 4th Edition: Laura King
  297. An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics: Fetsje Bijma & Marianne Jonker & Aad van der Vaart & Reinie Erné
  298. Business Communication: Polishing Your Professional Presence, 3rd Edition: Barbara G. Shwom & Lisa Gueldenzoph Snyder
  299. Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth, 2nd Edition: Ronald E. Martin
  300. Business Ethics: Decision Making for Personal Integrity & Social Responsibility, 4th Edition: Laura Hartman & Joseph DesJardins & Chris MacDonald
  301. College Algebra and Trigonometry, Global Edition, 6th Edition: Margaret L. Lial & John Hornsby & David I. Schneider & Callie Daniels
  302. Essentials of MIS, 12th Edition: Kenneth C. Laudon & Jane P. Laudon
  303. Behavior Analysis and Learning: A Biobehavioral Approach, 6th Edition: W. David Pierce & Carl D. Cheney
  304. University Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  305. Earth System History, 4th Edition: Steven M. Stanley & John A. Luczaj
  306. Analytical Mechanics, 2nd Edition: Nivaldo A. Lemos
  307. Fundamentals of Management, 7th Canadian Edition: Stephen P. Robbins & David A. DeCenzo & Mary Coulter
  308. Computer Accounting with QuickBooks Online: A Cloud Based Approach, 2nd Edition: Carol Yacht & Susan Crosson
  309. Cost Accounting and Financial Management for Construction Project Managers, 1st Edition: Len Holm
  310. Business Continuity Management in Construction, 1st Edition: Leni Sagita Riantini Supriadi & Low Sui Pheng
  311. Contemporary Logistics, 12th Edition, Global Edition: Paul R. Murphy & A. Michael Knemeyer
  312. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 1: Materials and Engineering Mechanics, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  313. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 2: Design, Instrumentation, and Controls, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  314. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 3: Manufacturing and Management, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  315. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, Volume 4: Energy and Power, 4th Edition: Myer Kutz
  316. An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics and Its Applications, 6th Edition: Richard J. Larsen & Morris L. Marx
  317. Developmental Mathematics, 1st Edition: Robert F. Blitzer
  318. Thinking Mathematically, 7th Edition: Robert F. Blitzer
  319. Wardlaw's Contemporary Nutrition, 10th Edition: Anne Smith & Angela Collene
  320. Mathematical Statistics: An Introduction to Likelihood Based Inference, 1st Edition: Richard J. Rossi
  321. Asking the Right Questions, 11th Edition: M. Neil Browne & Stuart M. Keeley
  322. Asking the Right Questions, 11th Edition, Global Edition: M. Neil Browne & Stuart M. Keeley
  323. Crash Course Cardiology, 4th Edition: Antonia Churchhouse & Julian O. M. Ormerod & Michael Frenneaux
  324. A Graphical Approach to Precalculus with Limits, 7th Edition: John Hornsby & Margaret L. Lial & Gary K. Rockswold
  325. Unlocking Equity and Trusts, 5th Edition: Mohamed Ramjohn
  326. Public Speaking: The Evolving Art, 4th Edition: Stephanie J. Coopman & James Lull
  327. Social Psychology, 8th Edition: Michael Hogg & Graham Vaughan
  328. Human Resources Management in Canada, 12th Canadian Edition: Gary Dessler & Nita Chhinzer & Nina Cole
  329. Law Core Textbook Bundle: Equity and Trusts, 8th edition: Alastair Hudson
  330. Living Ethics: An Introduction with Readings: Russ Shafer-Landau
  331. Microsoft Project 2019 Step by Step, 1st Edition: Cindy Lewis & Carl Chatfield & Timothy Johnson
  332. Global Business Ethics: Responsible Decision Making in an International Context, 1st Edition: Ronald D Francis & Guy Murfey
  333. Construction Management: Theory and Practice, 1st Edition: Chris March
  334. Harrison's Endocrinology, 4th Edition: J. Larry Jameson
  335. Harrison's Neurology in Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Stephen Hauser & S. Andrew Josephson
  336. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies with Online Practice, 3rd Edition: Geraldine Woods
  337. Naked: The Dark Side of Shame and Moral Life, 1st Edition: Krista K. Thomason
  338. Ashcraft's Pediatric Surgery, 6th Edition: George W. Holcomb III & J. Patrick Murphy & Daniel J Ostlie
  339. Mobile Apps Engineering: Design, Development, Security, and Testing, 1st Edition: Ghita K. Mostefaoui & Faisal Tariq
  340. Lange Clinical Neurology, 10th Edition: Roger Simon & David Greenberg & Michael Aminoff
  341. International Textbook of Diabetes Mellitus, 2 Volume Set, 4th Edition: R. A. DeFronzo & E. Ferrannini & Paul Zimmet & George Alberti
  342. Java Programming, 9th Edition: Joyce Farrell
  343. Discovering Behavioral Neuroscience: An Introduction to Biological Psychology, 4th Edition: Laura Freberg
  344. How the Immune System Works, 5th Edition: Lauren M. Sompayrac
  345. Fundamentals of Electroceramics: Materials, Devices, and Applications, 1st Edition: R. K. Pandey
  346. Essentials of Hospital Neurology, 1st Edition: Karl E. Misulis & E. Lee Murray
  347. Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6th Edition: Judith Goodenough & Betty A. McGuire
  348. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 13th Edition: Shlomo Melmed & Kenneth S. Polonsky & P. Reed Larsen & Henry M. Kronenberg
  349. Financial Management: Principles and Applications, Global Edition, 13th Edition: Sheridan Titman & Arthur J. Keown & John D Martin
  350. Case Studies in Immunology: A Clinical Companion, 7th Edition: Raif S. Geha & Luigi Notarangelo
  351. Handbook of MRI Technique, 4th Edition: Catherine Westbrook
  352. MRI: Basic Principles and Applications, 5th Edition: Brian M. Dale & Mark A. Brown & Richard C. Semelka
  353. Robbins Basic Pathology, 10th Edition: Vinay Kumar & Abul K. Abbas & Jon C. Aster & Vinay Kumar & Abul K. Abbas & Jon C. Aster
  354. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice: 2-Volume Set, 9th Edition: Ron Walls & Robert Hockberger & Marianne Gausche-Hill
  355. BNF for Children: 2018-2019, 1st Edition: Paediatric Formulary Committee
  356. Sitaraman and Friedman's Essentials of Gastroenterology, 2nd Edition: Shanthi Srinivasan & Lawrence S. Friedman
  357. Practical Gastroenterology and Hepatology Board Review Toolkit, 2nd Edition: Kenneth R. DeVault & Michael B. Wallace & Bashar A. Aqel & Keith D. Lindor
  358. Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction, 2nd edition: Richard S. Sutton & Andrew G. Barto
submitted by bookseller10 to Textbook_releases [link] [comments]

Mega eTextbooks release thread (part-28)! Find your textbooks here between $5-$25 :)

Please find the list below:
  1. Disease Gene Identification: Methods and Protocols, 2nd Edition: Johanna K. DiStefano
  2. Statistical Aspects of the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 3rd Edition: Basil Jarvis
  3. Revel for Social Problems, 14th Edition: Stanley Eitzen & Maxine Baca Zinn & Kelly Ei Smith
  4. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management: Pearson New International Edition, 3rd Edition: Gary Dessler
  5. Economics Today: The Micro View, 18th Edition: Roger LeRoy Miller
  6. Employment Law for Business, 8th Edition: Dawn Bennett-Alexander & Laura Hartman
  7. Surgical Exposures in Orthopaedics: The Anatomic Approach, 5th Edition: Stanley Hoppenfeld & Piet de Boer & Richard Buckley
  8. Project Management in Construction, 7th Edition: Sidney Levy
  9. Financial and Managerial Accounting, 7th Edition: John Wild & Ken Shaw & Barbara Chiappetta
  10. Handbook of Plant Disease Identification and Management, 1st Edition: Balaji Aglave
  11. Ubuntu Unleashed 2019 Edition: Covering 18.04, 18.10, 19.04, 13th Edition: Matthew Helmke
  12. Handbook of Insulin Therapies, 1st Edition: Winston Crasto & Janet Jarvis & Melanie J. Davies
  13. Python for Programmers: with Big Data and Artificial Intelligence Case Studies, 1st Edition: Paul J. Deitel & Harvey Deitel
  14. Medical Ethics: Accounts of Ground-Breaking Cases, 7th Edition: Gregory Pence
  15. Human Resource Management, 13th Edition: Gary Dessler
  16. The Biology and Therapeutic Application of Mesenchymal Cells, 2 Volume Set, 1st Edition: Kerry Atkinson
  17. Computer Security Fundamentals, 3rd Edition: William Chuck Easttom
  18. Hendee's Radiation Therapy Physics, 4th Edition: Todd Pawlicki & Daniel J. Scanderbeg & George Starkschall
  19. Nutrient Delivery, 1st Edition: Alexandru Grumezescu
  20. Technology Entrepreneurship: Taking Innovation to the Marketplace, 2nd Edition: Thomas N. Duening & Robert A. Hisrich & Michael A. Lechter
  21. Chemistry of Metalloproteins: Problems and Solutions in Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1st Edition: Joseph J. Stephanos & Anthony W. Addison
  22. Mathematical Statistics with Applications in R, 2nd Edition: Kandethody M. Ramachandran & Chris P. Tsokos
  23. Diagnostic Imaging: Genitourinary, 3rd Edition: Mitchell E. Tublin
  24. Comprehensive Management of Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain and Spine, 1st Edition: Robert F. Spetzler & Douglas S. Kondziolka & Randall T. Higashida & M. Yashar S. Kalani
  25. Digital Design: With an Introduction to the Verilog HDL, 5th Edition: M. Morris R. Mano & Michael D. Ciletti
  26. Plasmids: Biology and Impact in Biotechnology and Discovery, 1st Edition: Marcelo E. Tolmasky & Juan C. Alonso
  27. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being, Global Edition, 12th Edition: Michael R. Solomon
  28. Project Management Case Studies, 5th Edition: Harold Kerzner
  29. Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine, 4th Edition: Rodney A. Rhoades & David R. Bell
  30. Essentials of Contemporary Management, 7th Edition: Gareth Jones & Jennifer George
  31. Harmony and Voice Leading, 4th Edition: Thomas E. Benjamin & Michael Horvit & Robert S. Nelson
  32. Principles of Economics, 2nd Edition: Lee Coppock & Dirk Mateer
  33. Oral Microbiology and Immunology, 2nd Edition: Richard J. Lamont & George N. Hajishengallis & Howard F. Jenkinson
  34. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain and Spine, 5th Edition: Scott W. Atlas
  35. Accounting Information Systems: Controls and Processes, 3rd Edition: Leslie Turner & Andrea B. Weickgenannt & Mary Kay Copeland
  36. Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Sustainable Value Creation, 5th Edition: David Chandler
  37. Julien's Primer of Drug Action: A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses, and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs, 14th Edition: Claire D. Advokat & Joseph Comaty & Robert Julien
  38. The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy And Its Geostrategic Imperatives, 1st Edition: Zbigniew Brzezinski
  39. The Cosmic Perspective: The Solar System, 8th Edition: Jeffrey O. Bennett & Megan O. Donahue & Nicholas Schneider & Mark Voit
  40. Ultrastructure Atlas of Human Tissues, 1st Edition: Fred Hossler
  41. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs, 1st Edition: Stephen L. Doggett & Dini M. Miller & Chow-Yang Lee
  42. Patterns of World History: Volume One: To 1600, 1st Edition: Peter von Sivers & Charles A. Desnoyers & George B. Stow
  43. Genitourinary Imaging: A Core Review, 1st Edition: Matthew Davenport
  44. Evidence-based Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1st Edition: Errol R. Norwitz & Carolyn M. Zelop & David A. Miller & David L. Keefe
  45. Zoology, 10th Edition: Stephen Miller & John Harley
  46. Radical and Reconstructive Gynecologic Cancer Surgery, 1st Edition: Robert Bristow & Dennis Chi
  47. Davis's Diseases & Disorders A Nursing Therapeutics Manual, 6th Edition: Marilyn Sawyer Sommers
  48. Management & Cost Accounting, 6th Edition: Alnoor Bhimani
  49. Elements of Modern Algebra, 8th Edition: Linda Gilbert
  50. Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 4th Edition: Katie Evans & Debra Nizette & Anthony O'Brien
  51. Molecular Biology: Different Facets, 1st Edition: Anjali Priyadarshini & Prerna Pandey
  52. Elementary Number Theory, 7th Edition: David Burton
  53. Accounting Information Systems, 14th Edition: Marshall B. Romney & Paul J. Steinbart
  54. Microeconomics, Global Edition, 9th Edition: Robert Pindyck & Daniel Rubinfeld
  55. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Demystified, 1st Edition: Jim Keogh
  56. Entrepreneurship, 10th Edition: Robert Hisrich & Michael Peters & Dean Shepherd
  57. Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology, 26th Edition: Kim E. Barrett & Susan M. Barman & Jason Yuan & Heddwen L. Brooks
  58. Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: A life course approach, 1st Edition: Eric A.P. Steegers & Bart C.J.M. Fauser & Carina G.J.M. Hilders
  59. Engineering Mechanics: Statics, 8th Edition: James L. Meriam & L. G. Kraige & J. N. Bolton
  60. Basic Concepts of Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing, 8th Edition: Louise Rebraca Shives
  61. Beckmann and Ling's Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8th Edition: Robert Casanova
  62. Biology: Concepts and Applications, 10th Edition: Cecie Starr & Christine Evers & Lisa Starr
  63. Estimating in Building Construction, 9th Edition: Steven J. Peterson & Frank R. Dagostino
  64. The Big Back Book: Tips & Tricks for Therapists, 1st Edition: Jane Johnson
  65. University Physics with Modern Physics, 14th Edition: Hugh D. Young & Roger A. Freedman
  66. Poisoning and Drug Overdose, 7th Edition: Kent Olson & Ilene Anderson & Neal Benowitz & Paul Blanc
  67. Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, 7th Edition: Gary W. Procop
  68. Experimental Psychology, 7th Edition: Anne Myers & Christine H. Hansen
  69. Marketing: An Introduction, 13th Edition: Gary Armstrong & Philip Kotler
  70. Gray's Anatomy for Students: With Student Consult, 3rd Edition: Richard Drake & A. Wayne Vogl & Adam W. M. Mitchell
  71. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice, 5th Edition: David H. Chestnut & Cynthia A Wong & Lawrence C Tsen & Warwick D Ngan Kee & Yaakov Beilin & Jill Mhyre
  72. Chemistry: The Molecular Science, 5th Edition: John W. Moore & Conrad L. Stanitski
  73. Head, Neck and Dental Emergencies, 2nd Edition: Mike Perry
  74. Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children, 10th Edition: Marilyn J. Hockenberry & David Wilson
  75. Sports Emergency Care: A Team Approach, 3rd Edition: Robb Rehberg & Jeff G. Konin
  76. New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, 10th Edition: Stephen Spinelli & Rob Adams
  77. Caring for the Vulnerable: Perspectives in Nursing Theory, Practice, and Research, 5th Edition: Mary de Chesnay & Barbara Anderson
  78. Geometry: The Line and the Circle: Maureen T. Carroll & Elyn Rykken
  79. Histories of Human Engineering: Tact and Technology: Maarten Derksen
  80. Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future, 1st Edition: Ilan Chabay & Martin Frick & Jennifer Helgeson
  81. Yamada's Handbook of Gastroenterology, 3rd Edition: Tadataka Yamada & John M. Inadomi & Renuka Bhattacharya & Jason A. Dominitz & Joo Ha Hwang
  82. Theoretical Physics 9: Fundamentals of Many-body Physics, 2nd Edition: Wolfgang Nolting & William D. Brewer
  83. Introduction to Programming with C++, 3rd Edition: Y. Daniel Liang
  84. Dental Emergencies, 1st Edition: Mark Greenwood & Ian Corbett
  85. Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere, 2nd Edition: Guido Visconti
  86. Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 3rd Edition: William L. Briggs & Lyle Cochran & Bernard Gillett & Eric Schulz
  87. Educating Physical Therapists, 1st Edition: Gail Jensen
  88. Strategic Developments in Eurasia After 11 September, 1st Edition: Shireen Hunter
  89. Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics, 4th Edition: Dean Harris
  90. Transitioning from RN to MSN: Principles of Professional Role Development: Brenda Scott & Mindy Thompson
  91. Principles and Practice of Public Health Surveillance, 3rd Edition: Lisa M. Lee & Steven M. Teutsch & Stephen B. Thacker & Michael E. St. Louis
  92. Elementary Statistics: Picturing the World, 6th Edition: Ron Larson & Betsy Farber
  93. Human Sexuality in a World of Diversity, 6th Canadian Edition: Spencer A. Rathus & Jeffrey S. Nevid & Lois Fichner-Rathus & Alex McKay & Robin Milhausen
  94. Becoming Your Own Banker, 6th Edition: R. Nelson Nash
  95. Murach's MySQL, 3rd Edition: Joel Murach
  96. Intermediate Algebra, 13th Edition: Marvin L. Bittinger & Judith A. Beecher & Barbara L. Johnson
  97. Planning Health Promotion Programs: An Intervention Mapping Approach, 4th Edition: L. Kay Bartholomew Eldredge & Christine M. Markham & Robert A. C. Ruiter & Maria E. Fernández & Gerjo Kok & Guy S. Parcel
  98. Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems, 3rd Edition: Robert W. Proctor & Trisha Van Zandt
  99. The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics, 17th Edition: Louis Schubert & Thomas R. Dye & Harmon Zeigler
  100. Understanding Earth, 7th Edition: John Grotzinger
  101. Nursing Research in Canada: Methods, Critical Appraisal, and Utilization, 4th Edition: Geri LoBiondo-Wood & Judith Haber & Cherylyn Cameron & Mina Singh
  102. The Philosophy of Film, 1st Edition: Thomas E. Wartenberg & Angela Curran
  103. Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness, 4th Edition: Tener Goodwin Veenema
  104. Language in Mind: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics, 2nd Edition: Julie Sedivy
  105. Medical Anthropology: A Biocultural Approach, 3rd Edition: Andrea S. Wiley & John S. Allen
  106. Exploring Biology in the Laboratory, 3rd Edition: Murray P. Pendarvis & John L. Crawley
  107. Guide to Networking Essentials, 8th Edition: Greg Tomsho
  108. Social Psychology: A Storytelling Approach, 2nd Edition: Leonard Newman & Ralph Erber
  109. Managing Conflict: An Introspective Journey to Negotiating Skills, 1st Edition: Dorothy Balancio
  110. Environmental Change and Challenge: A Canadian Perspective, 5th Edition: Philip Dearden & Bruce Mitchell
  111. Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, 1st Edition: David Eagleman & Jonathan Downar
  112. Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets Study Guide: Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Test Review for the Cardiac/Vascular Nurse Exam: Mometrix Media & Cardiac Vascular Nurse Exam Secrets
  113. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, The Essentials, 9th Edition: Christine Barbour & Gerald Wright
  114. Principles of Environmental Science, 9th Edition: William Cunningham & Mary Cunningham
  115. Thomas' Calculus, 14th Edition: Joel R. Hass & Christopher E. Heil & Maurice D. Weir
  116. Pharmacology for Canadian Pharmacy Technicians, 1st Edition: Leland Norman Holland & Michael P. Adams & Jeanine Lynn Brice & Heather V. LeBlanc
  117. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 9th Edition: Abul K. Abbas & Andrew H. Lichtman & Shiv Pillai
  118. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 11th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  119. Jews, Christians, Muslims: A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions, 2nd Edition: John Corrigan & Frederick Denny & Martin S Jaffee & Carlos Eire
  120. Professional Nursing: Concepts & Challenges, 9th Edition: Beth Black
  121. Practical Homicide Investigation: Tactics, Procedures, and Forensic Techniques, 4th Edition: Vernon J. Geberth
  122. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes and Systems, 7th Edition: Mikell P. Groover
  123. Genetics: A Conceptual Approach, 7th Edition: Benjamin A. Pierce
  124. Computer Science Illuminated, 7th Edition: Nell Dale & John Lewis
  125. The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 8th Edition: John Baylis & Steve Smith & Patricia Owens
  126. Behavioral Neuroscience, 9th Edition: S. Marc Breedlove & Neil V. Watson
  127. Canadian Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach, 12th Edition: Hermann Schwind & Krista Uggerslev & Terry Wagar & Neil Fassina
  128. Brief Principles of Macroeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  129. Living in the Environment, 4th Canadian Edition: G. Miller & Dave Hackett & Carl Wolfe
  130. Principles of Economics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  131. Principles of Microeconomics, 9th Edition: N. Gregory Mankiw
  132. Child Development, 9th Edition: Laura E. Berk
  133. Home, School, and Community Collaboration: Culturally Responsive Family Engagement, 4th Edition: Kathy Beth Grant & Julie A. Ray
  134. Set Lighting Technician's Handbook, 4th Edition: Harry Box
  135. Clinical Nurse Leader Certification Review, 2nd Edition: Cynthia R. King
  136. Basic Chemistry, 4th Edition: Karen C. Timberlake & William Timberlake
  137. Sparks & Taylor's Nursing Diagnosis Pocket Guide, 3rd Edition: Linda Phelps
  138. Family Theories: Foundations and Applications, 1st Edition: Katherine R. Allen & Angela C. Henderson
  139. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, 7th Edition: Richard Bulliet & Pamela Crossley & Daniel Headrick & Steven Hirsch & Lyman Johnson
  140. Sociology in Action: A Canadian Perspective, 3rd Edition: Tami Bereska & Diane Symbaluk
  141. Operations Management: Processes and Supply Chains, 12th Edition: Lee J. Krajewski & Manoj K. Malhotra & Larry P. Ritzman
  142. Introduction to Food Science and Food Systems, 2nd Edition: Rick Parker & Miriah Pace
  143. Liaisons, Student Edition: An Introduction to French, 3rd Edition: Wynne Wong & Stacey Weber-Fève & Bill VanPatten
  144. Zuckerman Parker Handbook of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics for Primary Care, 4th Edition: Marilyn Augustyn & Barry Zuckerman
  145. Teaching in Today's Inclusive Classrooms: A Universal Design for Learning Approach, 3rd Edition: Richard M. Gargiulo & Debbie Metcalf
  146. The Biological Basis of Mental Health, 3rd Edition: William T. Blows
  147. Developing and Managing Electronic Collections: The Essentials: Peggy Johnson
  148. Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500, 10th Edition: Jackson J. Spielvogel
  149. Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know, 1st Edition: Malcolm Gladwell
  150. Understanding Pathophysiology, 7th Edition: Sue E. Huether & Kathryn L. McCance
  151. Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective, 5th edition: Dianne Draper & Ann Zimmerman
  152. Criminal Law: Cases and Materials, 8th Edition: John Kaplan & Robert Weisberg & Guyora Binder
  153. A Photographic Atlas of Histology, 2nd Edition: Michael J Leboffe
  154. Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia, 3rd Edition: Barbara A. Weightman
  155. Climate Change Biology, 1st Edition: Jonathan A. Newman & Madhur Anand & Hugh A. L. Henry & Shelley L. Hunt & Ze'ev Gedalof
  156. The Power of Critical Thinking: 5th Canadian Edition: Chris MacDonald and Lewis Vaughn
  157. Principles of Fire Behavior and Combustion, 4th Edition: Richard Gann & Raymond Friedman
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The CBDC Road to Practice-The Framework of LDF 2020

The CBDC Road to Practice-The Framework of LDF 2020
The CBDC Road To Practice——The Framework of LDF 2020
March 8, 2020 By JH( Lend0X Project Architect)
The Market Structure Analysis of CBDC
I. CBDC helps GDP growth
CBDC can be used as cash for commercial banks or as a medium for (government) bonds. The way in which assets are issued will have a huge impact on GDP growth. For commercial banks, the CBDC issued by the central bank is the source of assets. For customers, the products under the CBDC are the use of funds. Blockchain-based CBDC and bank account-based digital cash and banknotes are generally considered to have a huge difference in the contribution of GDP to quality, cost, and efficiency.
https://preview.redd.it/fji1rqdxequ41.png?width=411&format=png&auto=webp&s=10647fa76b42056f80527cfd5342a2f8c1d1df1a
Qualitatively
The Bank of England states in the 2019 study that the macroeconomic effects of issuing central bank digital currency (CBDC), the following three advantages of digital currency can increase interest-bearing central bank liabilities, and distributed ledgers can compete with bank deposits as a medium of exchange.
In the digital currency economy model 1. The model in the report matches the adjusted US currency issuance before the crisis, and we find that if the issuance of CBDC accounts for 30% of GDP, compared with government bonds, it may permanently increase GDP by 3%.
  1. Reduce real interest rates, reverse taxes and currency transaction costs.
  2. As a second monetary policy tool, countercyclical CBDC price or quantity rules can greatly improve the ability of the central bank to stabilize the business cycle.
Cost
II. The issuing system and payment structure of CBDC
The BIS research report pointed out that CBDC has many open questions, such as whether they should be retail or wholesale? Directly or indirectly to consumers? Account-based or token-based? Based on distributed ledgers, a centralized model or a hybrid model? How does CBDC pay across borders?
https://preview.redd.it/6dczkw83fqu41.png?width=249&format=png&auto=webp&s=3c9f31f371ccbeab21d634b6a01ee0bd5a8b0f08
Of the three issuance systems (indirect, direct, and hybrid), CBDC can only be issued directly by the central bank. In The first type of indirect issuance structure,the CBDC is the indirect architecture ,and is done indirectly. ICBDC in the hands of consumers (such as the digital currency issued by the 4 largest state-owned commercial banks in DCEP) represents commercial banks (such as the 4 largest state-owned commercial banks) debt.
In the second type of direct and third type of mixed issuance structure, consumers are creditors of the central bank. In the direct CBDC model (type 2), the central bank processes all payments in real time and therefore maintains a record of all retail assets. The hybrid CBDC model is an intermediate solution where the consumer is a creditor of the central bank, but real-time payments are handled by the intermediary, and the central bank keeps copies of all retail
CBDCs in order to transfer them from one payment service provider to another in the event of a technical failure.
In terms of efficiency
Three payment architecture architectures allow account-based or token-based access. Although its DCEP digital currency is not a token in the blockchain, it is similar to the token in blockchain in key features such as non-double spending, anonymity, non-forgeability, security, transferability, separability, and programmability. Therefore, DCEP still belongs to the Token paradigm, not the account paradigm.
All four combinations are possible for any CBDC architecture (indirect, direct or hybrid) whatever the payment structure is based on the centralization or centralization mode, the account or token mode of blockchain smart contract account . But in different structures, central banks, commercial banks, and the private sector operate different parts of the infrastructure.
At present, the DCEP issuance structure adopts a two-tier structure, and its payment system——four major state-owned commercial
banks issuing four ICDBC tokens. Its technical architecture features are consistent with the first indirect distribution method. Because DCEP is positioned as digital cash (M0 cash) and the central bank's DCEP supports offline mobile payment, considering its huge payment transactions, a centralized account system for DCEP payment methods is essential. Offline Payment methods access to mobile wallets based on tokens are also essential for commercial banks.

https://preview.redd.it/0wvltv0ffqu41.png?width=411&format=png&auto=webp&s=4fd728ece4e869126b6ec8e90cd1962302a424bd
LDF Central Bank Digital Currency CBDC Project Development
At present, the technical framework of the CBDC and the selection of infrastructure are divided into the R & D and cooperation of domestic application planning DCEP application scenarios; its overseas expansion goal supports the development of the “Belt and Road” digital asset ecosystem. DCEP adopts a double-layer system of commercial banks and central banks to adapt to the existing currency
systems of sovereign countries in the world. China, as a currency issuing country, has strong economic strength and basic conditions necessary for world currencies. At the same time, DCEP can also save the issued funds, calculate the inflation rate and other macroeconomic indicators more accurately, better curb illegal activities such as money laundering and terrorist financing, and facilitate foreign exchange circulation worldwide.
1. LDF——the combination of CBDC program and token economy
Only after answering questions such as the openness of CBDC currency itself, can we solve how the application of multiple blockchain industries such as LDF digital asset issuance platform, digital asset support bond platform, and lending and other CBDC currency "product traceability", "digital identity authentication", "judicial depository", "secure communication"and other basic applications, these LDFs are an important direction for exploring blockchain applications.
2.Select the most widely used blockchain technology as the basic platform
LDF introduced CBDC to use blockchain technology because it is the most mature landing foundation platform. It has the advantages of decentralization, openness, autonomy, anonymity, and tamper resistance. It can make the entire system information highly transparent, its data stability and the reliability is extremely high, which solves the point-to-point trust problem and can reduce transaction and operating costs. At present, the underlying technologies of mainstream digital assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, and USDT are all blockchain technologies. At the same time, the application scenarios of the blockchain not only include digital currency, but also include many fields such as "product traceability", "digital identity authentication", "judicial depository", "secure communication" and so on.
3.Interpretation of DCEP and selection of LDF blockchain technology architecture
·DCEP does not use a real blockchain like Libra, but may use a centralized ledger based on the UTXO (Unspent Transaction Output) model, and it still belongs to the Token paradigm. This centralized ledger reflects the digital currency issuance and registration system maintained by the central bank. It does not need to run consensus algorithms and will not be subject to the performance bottleneck of the blockchain. The blockchain may be used for the definitive registration of digital currencies and occupy a subsidiary position.

https://preview.redd.it/655gvo1ofqu41.png?width=273&format=png&auto=webp&s=eaf1da72ef45db094067e5523b1a92cc9a0f71c1
·Users need to use DCEP wallet. The core of the wallet is a pair of public and private keys. The public key is also the address, where the digital certificate of RMB is stored. This digital certificate is not a token in the blockchain in the complete sense, but it is consistent with the Token in many key features, and it is based on 100% RMB reserve. Users can initiate transfer transactions between addresses through the wallet private key. The transfer transaction is recorded
directly in the centralized ledger by the central bank. In this way, DCEP implements account loose coupling and controlled anonymity.
·Although DCEP is a currency tool, the third-party payment is mainly a payment tool after "disconnecting directly", but there are many similarities between the two. If DCEP is good enough in terms of technical efficiency and business development, and from the perspective of users, third-party payments can bring the same experience after DCEP and "disconnect directly". Therefore, DCEP has a mutual substitution relationship with third-party payment in the application after “disconnecting directly”.
·DCEP will have a tightening effect on M2, and M2 tightening reflects the contraction of the banking system to a certain extent. Digital currency does not pay interest, and the People's Bank of China has no plan to completely replace cash with DCEP, so DCEP will not constitute a new monetary policy tool. DCEP has strong policy implications for central bank monitoring of capital flows, as well as anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing and anti-tax evasion. Therefore, the supervisory function of DCEP exceeds that of monetary policy.
·The impact of DCEP on RMB internationalization is mainly reflected in cross-border payments based on digital currencies. Although cross-border payments including DCEP, can promote RMB internationalization, cross-border payment is only a necessary condition for RMB internationalization, not a sufficient one. The internationalization of the RMB is inseparable from a series of institutional arrangements.
4.The effectiveness of digital currencies in the LDF framework
CBDC is positioned as digital cash or currency under the LDF framework, and the remaining various tokens, cryptocurrencies, and stablecoins are treated as digital assets. The application platforms involved in LDF (asset mortgage bond platform, digital asset issuance platform, and lending). The underlying assets of LDF are part of the digital asset equity. The reason why LDF uses CBDC and stable currency as currency is due to ·LDF framework links three financial ecosystems ·CBDC has the characteristics of currency transaction, accounting unit and value storage have been verified
·Stablecoins can be used as a payment tool for token economic platforms, not currencies
The stable currency selected by LDF should effectively play the payment function of the currency, and meet the requirements of the following LDF framework: ·Must be universally accepted ·Must be easy to standardize in order to determine its value
Due to the characteristics of DvP (payment is settlement) based on blockchain technology, LDF's smart contracts have the characteristics of decentralized intermediaries, such as the function of asset account contracts partially replacing account settlement; the asset pool contract replacing SPV, and the cash flow contract replacing assets Payment intermediary The digital currency selected as an LDF that meets the above standards is very important for the effectiveness of the LDF framework. Otherwise, the platform built by the LDF framework will not be able to achieve the capabilities of distributed ledgers and DAO organizations.
LDF regulatory compliance
LDF chooses CBDC (DCEP) as the construction of digital asset transaction payment platform, which has the characteristics of DvP (asset payment is settlement). It supervises compliance with the selection of digital currencies that support smart contract accounts and trading platforms (anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing) has a decisive role.
DCEP takes the form of loosely coupled accounts to achieve controlled anonymity. The current electronic payment methods, such as bank cards and third-party payment platforms, all use the method of tightly coupling accounts, that is, funds must be transferred through real-name bank accounts. But With the improvement of people's awareness of information security, electronic payment cannot meet people's demand for anonymous payment. The digital currency of the central bank adopts the form of loosely coupled accounts, enabling asset transfers without the need for bank accounts, so as to achieve controllable anonymity.
Unlike Bitcoin's complete anonymity, the central bank has the right to obtain the transaction data within the legal scope, and the source
of digital currency can be traced through big data analysis, while other commercial banks and merchants cannot obtain relevant information. This mechanism, while protecting data security and citizen privacy, also enables illegal activities such as money laundering to be effectively supervised.
Association of LDF's DAO Autonomous Economic Model with CBDC
The direct DCB (such as DCEP) or LIBRA of the LDF token can quantify the value of DAO / DAE through a certain transformation and analysis, and predict its future long-term growth rate and the problems to be solved by the economic model, the solution path adopted, and the overall structure design, technological innovation, team composition, development vision and roadmap.
https://preview.redd.it/txg4mq0sfqu41.png?width=269&format=png&auto=webp&s=a69b919cf43c9115f43525f8d851ee1e4fbf5a1f
·The LDF economic model transplants the estimation model of the asset value of the general economic system to DAO 2.0 organization and market management, so as to establish a unified evaluation system for the value generated by the distributed autonomous economy (DAE). The endogenous economic growth model considers important parameters such as savings rate, population growth rate, and technological progress as endogenous variables. The long-term growth rate of the economy can be determined by the interior of the model. Moreover, the LDF economic model takes the number of tokens, nodes, and technical inputs of the distributed organization as similar parameters. The CBDC (such as DCEP) or LIBRA directly targeted by the token can quantify the value of DAO / DAE through certain transformation and analysis and predict its long-term growth rate in the future.
·In response to the special needs of transactions and asset on-chain in the blockchain field, the LDF economic model has developed a DAE (Decentralized Autonomous Economic) protocol group specifically designed to eliminate various pain points of decentralization in the blockchain field, and has developed corresponding LDF DAO DAPP, these agreements include: ·Issuance and trading of tokens based on smart contracts ·Distributed order submission and matching ·Transaction interest rate and mortgage method based on automatic discovery mechanism
Therefore, whether it is a community member, an investor, or a blockchain project developer that develops applications on the LDF economic model, it can use the distributed rules, consensus mechanisms, infrastructure, and smart contracts provided by it to achieve the following purposes:
·Encrypted token asset transaction and circulation based on community autonomy ·Issue of new LDF tokens ·Construction, collaboration, management, voting, and decision- making of specific encryption token communities
·Develop a smart contract system for the dual factors of community node rights and workload ·Customized incentive standards for nodes with different interests
Welcome to discuss with the author of this article, please contact via email:[email protected]
submitted by Lend0x to u/Lend0x [link] [comments]

Divorcing the settlement and transaction layers; the long con and maybe the real story behind the hijacking of Bitcoin.

I see a lot of posts going around about how easy it is to demolish small blockers on any reasonable technical debate. The small block crew doesn't debate technology because that's never what any of this was actually about, and something mentally slipped into place for me recently when I fully grasped the nature and implications of the divorce of the settlement and transaction layers in a broader macroeconomic and historical sense.
The fundamental promise of cryptocurrencies is a final solution to the previously impossible problem of an optimal currency. This is somewhat condensed, so allow me to unpack it.
The economy is a consensual shared mass hallucination. Everyone does what they do in order to get by within it because they see it as the best combination of what is in their abilities, coupled with what the rest of humanity that they trade with values. In order to get an accurate measure of what one should be doing at any one point in time, it necessarily follows that one needs a stable, immutable and constant unit of account to figure out the proper true value of provision of a product or service at any point in time.
Political currencies, which are commonly referred to now as "fiat currencies" and very poorly understood by the great mass of humanity which employ them, are anathema to this goal of figuring out the proper values of things, exactly because they are designed to be subject to infinite manipulation by the issuing authorities, which are politically appointed and accountable. Therefore any given government is incentivised to tamper extensively with the currency in order to provide "chicken in every pot" style benefits to their voting populace and remain in power and pay off their sponsors who so situated them.
This process necessarily distorts the market and results in things like having more bankers per capita than police, ad et al, despite bankers being fundamentally useless things. Stories must be spun about economic crises and situations which justify monetary policies which result in the desired economic distortions that keep the votes flowing in. Eventually the system fails as even the slowest of the slow realise that it's all just a shell game where everyone is pretending that everything has value when none of it actually does in the slightest.
Simply put; it's my belief that this is what's happening now. You're not seeing "a crypto bubble", you're seeing "the popping of the fiat bubble".
First point about that; old school austrian gold standard types would about this point be nodding their heads and preparing to launch into a tirade about the necessity of resuming the gold standard so that we may have a hard mechanism to value once again. This misses the critical point that gold is necessarily by physical nature as a currency largely separated into transaction and settlement portions. This was less a weakness in a smaller economy where trade could be conducted with coins and things of this manner, but when global trades are measured in tons of the underlying extremely precious metal, it's simply unrealistic to imagine that it's going to be sloshing around the globe constantly in battleships loaded with bars.
And that leads to the core problem with a gold standard that will re-emerge later in this tirade, so keep it in mind. The divorce of the transaction layer from the settlement layer enables corrupt influence and tampering within the system in much the exact same way as the fiat system. Historically "fractional reserve" banking with a set portion of gold was a mild form of this, and reserves dwindled over time as it became politically expedient to "expand the economy and not be tied down by something as parochial as gold", and other associated ridiculous excuses to circumvent the entire purpose of the apparatus.
This has grown to epidemic portions in the present market where paper gold trade outweighs physical gold trade by a ratio of 542 to 1. Given that, obviously the paper gold trade is going to set the price of the physical gold, and the value is once again utterly divorced from any kind of stable actual reality by which prices can be said to accurately reflect value.
Second point about that, and why Bitcoin is such a failure, as well as the agenda you can very easily see within this zombie shambling about in the carcass of what was once a beautiful idea; The core treachery that has been inflicted upon the project is what? You guessed it; to divorce the settlement and transaction layers from one another, which makes it once again subject to the exact same weaknesses as gold in the modern world with its laughable 542 to 1 paper to physical transaction to settlement layer.
If I were a paranoid man. A conspiracy theorist, say. I would speculate that the hijacking of the Bitcoin project specifically that as resulted in this divorce of transaction and settlement layers, when no such divorce is required from a technical perspective whatsoever, is everything one should need to know about the forces behind the project, who really has control, and which direction it is being pushed.
But I'm not and that's all crazy talk, right? I'm sure our new Bitcoin overlords are all sweetness and light and not out to just re-implement the same currently imploding system with a fashionable new rebel label stuck upon it by any means at all, because that would just be evil.
Anyway, on to REAL cryptocurrencies, and what distinguishes them from the hijacked version of Bitcoin, and what therefore makes them such a threat to that system, as well as the old currently imploding mainstream economic system, is precisely the fact that the transactional and settlement layers are not divorced. They are exactly the same thing. You cannot tamper with any part of the system, it is a steel cable from one participant in the economy to another, with each participant being able to cryptographically verify the characteristics of the transactions which they undertake, and observe that the supply is not being tampered with in real time on a globally distributed constantly available ledger, which in turn is not subject to interference from any of the traditional forces of monetary parasitism encompassed by central banks and nation states.
It terrifies them exactly because it should, it is to nation states and central banking what uber is to cabs, what airbnb is to hotels, what any distributed impossible to control economy that only cares about actually accomplishing the goal for which it was created is to any sideshow which merely pretends to be the case, but is in fact some other thing like a passive income earning mechanism for taxi medallion holders, or owners of hotel chains, ad et al. Put simply, If real cryptocurrencies win, they will be out of a job permanently.
So in conclusion, no. No matter what the final value of Bitcoin is, I don't see it as valuable, or as any kind of actual competition for real cryptocurrencies. I see it as an opportunity to ride the wave and profit simply by the unjustified expansion of value as the old system undergoes collapse and tries to cram as much of its ill gotten gains into this fake shambling zombie as it possibly can, with the added bonus that they seem not to realise, or have accepted as unavoidable, that they can't stop real crypto holders from taking the gains out of the dozens of liquid channels from BTC into those real cryptocurrencies that presently exist and will only grow in value over time.
The end result in my view is that the implosion in the mainstream economy will merely echo up the chain and into the chamber of their Bitcoin golem, and all that will be left is actual cryptocurrencies, which will be "proper money" and anything less than that will be recognised for the fraud it is.
submitted by etherael to btc [link] [comments]

Welcome to ETERBASE (Summarized thread)

WELCOME TO ETERBASE (UPDATED 14.12.2019)
This thread is a summary of all that entails Eterbase (Xbase, Ebase, etc) and will be updated when more news comes out. It’s highly recommended to take your time and read this post if you’d like to know more about the company, token or exchange. If you have any amendments, feel free to post a reply and we’ll change it as soon as we can.
1 Overview / Company
Eterbase is a Slovakia based Digital Asset Exchange, which is compliant with EU laws and regulations, and offers the fastest and most secure API within the space. Having its own collateralized payment token EBASE and many features superior to its competitors, Eterbase aims to position itself amongst the TOP crypto exchanges and as a financial institution. Source
1.1 Exchange
The exchange is the cornerstone of the ETERBASE project. As history has shown, when it comes to periods of increased business activity (e.g. panic selling), the load on exchanges is increased by several orders of magnitude. Many current exchanges suffered severe slow-downs or outages as a result of such activities.We believe that a good exchange is one that delivers not only for sustained periods of time, but also during unexpected heavy load and peak times. We have also seen that in many projects, the initial design changed significantly during the development of the final product, and therefore these projects suffer from architectural constraints that make change management and development difficult. We want to have a robust, scalable and flexible architecture for our exchange. To support these goals, the design team at ETERBASE has defined seven primary objectives for the solutions behind the technical and architectural choices:
We want to deliver, maintain and continually develop our platform, as well as bring new features and experiences to users in the emerging fintech market. To be able to achieve this goal, we must design, develop and control every critical component of our exchange. We have developed every key component of ETERBASE EXCHANGE in house. Source
1.2 Eterbase coin
The Eterbase Coin (XBASE) was originally airdropped by its founders through the Ethereum Network to partners, traders and marketers to incentivize and promote the use of ETERBASE EXCHANGE. The Eterbase Coin (XBASE) has no legal connection to ETERBASE a.s. and it is at the sole discretion of the management to utilize Eterbase Coin (XBASE) or any other digital asset for that matter by the company at any given moment.
According to the ESMA opinion we consider the Eterbase Coin (XBASE) to be a transferable utility token. However, the precise classification might change due to the planned experimental mainnet implementation. It is also likely that this classification might differ in various jurisdictions. Eterbase Coin (XBASE) gives no rights to any entitlements of any kind or any decision-making power within the company or on the platform. The only utility of the token is to serve as a trading pair on the ETERBASE EXCHANGE and to unlock bonus features via Premium Memberships if certain conditions are met based on the sole discretion of the management. Premium Memberships can be obtained via means other than the utilization of Eterbase Coins (XBASE). These two are not legally linked and it is solely up to the discretion of the management of ETERBASE a.s. to enable the features of Premium Membership for individuals.
The Eterbase Coin (XBASE) is currently following ERC223 (Ethereum Network) standard and was audited by several external parties for potential security risks. ETERBASE a.s. might initiate the sale or purchase of Eterbase Coins (XBASE) at any time in any quantity with its own account, as it might do with other digital assets such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and others. Furthermore, the Eterbase Coin (XBASE) exists on the BEP-2 network as XBASE-B.
1.3 Eurbase
On September 1st, 2019; Eterbase announced that it has launched the first phase of the stablecoin named EURBASE [Ebase], which its sole aim to create the first anti-inflationary based stablecoin. As of now it’s pegged to the Euro, but this will change.
As most of us know the central banks and governments tend to tax most of us via inflationary taxation that is to certain degree sold to us via macroeconomic need to push people to spend instead of hoarding the savings and deposits.
Currently, this pressure is getting stronger by the very introduction of negative interest rates and negative yields to AAA-AA government bonds.What we are concluding is that holding Euro and other major currencies can get very expensive in the near future by virtue of both higher inflation due to global trade sanctions and negative interest rates.
We are modelling EURBASE stablecoin to be able to keep up with the inflation within the EUROZONE (current ECB target being 2%) and to be free from negative yields to its holders. In order to cover up the marginal increase the stablecoin will be use its earnings from fees, market making and portfolio appreciation of its underlying assets to manufacture the peg and anti-inflationary hedge in the mid-term utilizing BTC overcollateralization, EUR cash deposits and cash guarantees as the core holdings of its portfolio.
1.4 Token Information / Supply
Symbol
ERC Contract (ERC223)
Decimals
BEP Contract (BEP-2)
Supply
Circulating Supply
1.5 Fees
2. General Info Links)
3. Exchanges^(\Sorted by alphabetical order, not volume)*
4. Third Party Reports
5. AMA’s
6. Interviews
7. Partnerships
8. Announcements, updates and Events
9. Social media links
10. Explainer videos
submitted by SgtTommo to Eterbase [link] [comments]

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190919(Market index 31 — Fear state)

Daily analysis of cryptocurrencies 20190919(Market index 31 — Fear state)

https://preview.redd.it/ohzr58jf3kn31.png?width=432&format=png&auto=webp&s=7243012b0c5417a9ed5ecab1f85e44d93ddb564f

Bank Of America Joins Marco Polo Blockchain Trade Network Bank of America has joined Marco Polo, a consortium working to bring efficiencies to international trade using blockchain technology. Founded by startups R3 and TradeIX, Marco Polo is built on R3’s Corda blockchain platform. The network aims to deliver real-time connectivity, greater visibility for trading relationships and lower barriers to accessing capital.
China State Council: Promoting Integration Of New Technologies Like Blockchain Tech With Transportation Industry According to Xinhua News Agency, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council recently issued an outline for transportation construction in China. In terms of smart transportation innovation, the outline proposes to promote the deep integration of new technologies such as big data, Internet, artificial intelligence, and blockchain with the transportation industry.
Arab Bank Switzerland Opens Bitcoin Custody, Brokerage Services Arab Bank Switzerland has partnered with blockchain technology firm Taurus to offer Bitcoin (BTC) and Ether (ETH) custody and brokerage services to its clients. Serge Robin, the CEO of Arab Bank Switzerland — a Swiss institution that forms part of the Jordan-headquartered Arab Bank group — said: “We firmly believe that blockchain will disrupt the financial industry as we know it and we intend to be amongst the.
The Turkish Government Has Announced Plans To Establish A National Blockchain Infrastructure According to a Cointelegraph report, the Turkish government has announced plans to establish a national blockchain infrastructure to utilize distributed ledger technology (DLT) in public administration, according to the Strategy 2023 presentation provided by The Ministry of Industry and Technology on Sept. 18 in Ankara. Strategy 2023 emphasizes blockchain and DLT as priorities for the coming year. The document refers to a Startup Genome survey that marks blockchain as one of the fastest-growing tech trends, with a 101.5% increase in early-stage startup funding globally.

Encrypted project calendar(September 19, 2019)

NRG/Energi: Energi (NRG) Energi will launch a trading competition on the KuCoin platform on September 9th. By September 19th, 800 NRG will be presented to the top 470 participants. ADA/Cardano: The Cardano (ADA) project official will host the Wyoming hackathon from September 19th to 22nd. KIN/Kin: The Kin (KIN) project team will host a community gathering in Toronto on September 19. BTC/Bitcoin: The 2019 Open Core Summit will be held in San Francisco from September 19th to 20th. BSV/Bitcoin SV: The Bitcoin SV (BSV) BSV Eco Conference will be held in Hangzhou, China on September 19th. OKEX will jointly host the event as a strategic partner of BSV. NPX/NaPoleonX: NaPoleonX (NPX) Binance DEX will be online NPX at 9:30 am (UTC) on September 19. VIDY: On-line IDAX exchange and opening the GOB/BTC trading market

Encrypted project calendar(September 20, 2019)

NULS / NULS: The NULS 2.0 Beta hackathon will be held from September 20th to September 21st, 2019. AE/Aeternity: Aeternity (AE) will hold “Cosmos One” conference in Prague, Czech Republic on September 20th COCOS/COCOS: The Cocos-BCX (COCOS) Oasis Arena hackathon will take place from September 20th to 22nd in Shanghai, China (“GO Shanghai”). RVN/Ravencoin: The Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin project team will host the “Ravencoin Asia 2019” party in Seoul, South Korea on September 20. GOB: Go online on the IDAX exchange and open the GOB/BTC trading market

Encrypted project calendar(September 21, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: The 6th FINWISE Global Summit Macau will be held from September 21st to 22nd. Distributed Financial Technology (DeFi) is the main topic of this conference. OKB/OKB: OKB (OKB) OKEx The Africa Cryptour series of talks in Kenya will take place on September 21 in Nairobi. ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) Cardano Ambassador Marin Kramaric will host the Ada community gathering in Croatia on September 21. ZIL/Zilliqa: The Zilliqa (ZIL) Zilliqa project representative will attend the “Bitcoin and Blockchain Future” conference in London, UK on September 21st.

Encrypted project calendar(September 22, 2019)

NPXS/Pundi X: Pundi X (NPXS) PundiX Labs will officially launch the XPOS transaction at the “AkiColle” event in Tokyo on September 22.

Encrypted project calendar(September 23, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: Bakkt, the digital asset platform led by ICE, the parent company of the New York Stock Exchange and the world’s second largest trading group, will launch a bitcoin physical delivery futures contract on September 23. EOS/EOS: EOS main network is expected to upgrade version 1.8 on September 23 DCDecred: Project leader Jake Yocom-Piatt of Decred (DCR) Decrex will attend the Encryption Community Party in San Francisco on September 23 and will deliver a speech.

Encrypted project calendar(September 24, 2019)

ENG/Enigma: Enigma (ENG) ENG main network token snapshot will end on September 24, the original start time is August 26. LINA (LINA): Lina Review will host the Lina network launch event in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam on September 24th and release a 10-year operational strategy. Cappasity (CAPP): Cappasity will showcase its digital signage solutions in luxury stores at the Paris Retail Week from September 24th to 26th.

Encrypted project calendar(September 25, 2019)

MIOTA/IOTA: IOTA (MIOTA) IOTA will host a community event on September 25th at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles on the theme of “Building Your Own IoT.” Quant (QNT): The Quant project will participate in a marketing conference in London from September 25th to 26th, which will focus on data technology.

Encrypted project calendar(September 26, 2019)

ADA/Cardano: The Cardano (ADA) Cardano community will host a party in Washington, DC on September 26.

Encrypted project calendar(September 27, 2019)

BTC/Bitcoin: Cripto Latin Fest will be held in Cordoba, Argentina from September 27th to 29th. Switcheo (SWTH): After a one-year token exchange process, the project team will officially end the SWH→SWTH token exchange process on September 27.

Encrypted project calendar(September 28, 2019)

ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) Cardano (ADA) 2nd Anniversary, Cardinal Foundation, IOHK and EMURGO main members will participate in community celebrations in Plovdiv, Bulgaria on September 28. TOP Network (TOP): The TOP Network team will hold a hackathon in Prague, Czech Republic from September 28th to 29th. Horizen (ZEN): Horizen project BD Rep Vano Narimandize will discuss the current status and development of sidechain technology at the Industry 4.0 Blockchain Summit on September 28.

Encrypted project calendar(September 29, 2019)

GAME/GameCredits: GameCredits (GAME) is expected to perform hard forks on September 29th at block height 2519999

Encrypted project calendar(September 30, 2019)

INS/Insolar: Insolar (INS) will be on September 30th ERD/Elrond: Elrond (ERD) will conduct main network test on September 30th NULS/NULS: The NULS team will plan to beta the ChainBOX in the third quarter. CS/Credits: Credits (CS) will exchange tokens and bug rewards in the third quarter QTUM/Qtum: Quantum Chain (QTUM) is expected to complete lightning network beta in the third quarter XEM/NEM: New World Bank (XEM) will release mobile wallet and computer wallet in the third quarter HC/HyperCash: hypercash (HC) will complete community management agreement in the third quarter

Encrypted project calendar(October 01, 2019)

HT/Huobi Token: The financial base public link jointly created by Firecoin and Nervos is expected to be open source in October. RVN/Ravencoin: Ravencoin (RVN) Ravencoin will perform a hard fork on October 1. ADA/Cardano: Cardano (ADA) plans to hold technical consensus meeting in Amsterdam on October 1st XRC/Bitcoin Rhodium: Bitcoin Rhodium (XRC) will record account balance awards on October 1st PPC/Peercoin: Peercoin (PPC) will perform Peercoin v0.8 (code tang lang) hard fork on October 1st

Encrypted project calendar(October 02, 2019)

BNB/Binance Coin: The 2019 DELTA Summit will be held in Malta from October 2nd to 4th. The DELTA Summit is Malta’s official blockchain and digital innovation campaign. CAPP/Cappasity: The Cappasity (CAPP) London Science and Technology Festival will be held from October 2nd to 3rd, when the Cappasity project will be attended by the Science and Technology Festival.

Encrypted project calendar(October 03, 2019)

ETC/Ethereum Classic: The 2019 Ether Classic (ETC) Summit will be held in Vancouver on October 3–4
https://preview.redd.it/g5wngyjl3kn31.png?width=504&format=png&auto=webp&s=a2705252022914e72dd2dbc2aa641243bb185533
Bitcoin slipped below $10,000 on Thursday after the Federal Reserve cut benchmark lending rates by 25 basis points.
The BTC/USD instrument settled a new session low towards $9,585.86 on San Francisco-based Coinbase exchange. That brought the pair’s week-to-date losses close to 7 percent.
The move downhill occurred despite the presence of so-called bullish catalysts, mainly the recent drone attacks on Saudi Arabia oil production facilities that choked the world’s oil supply by 5 percent. The latest rate cut announcement and its immediate impact on bitcoin are reminiscent of how investors are not treating the cryptocurrency bitcoin as a safe-haven asset in the times of macroeconomic and geopolitical crisis.
Bulls, nevertheless, see bitcoin at new highs in the coming times. According to Arthur Hayes, the CEO & co-founder of controversial crypto-derivatives exchange BitMEX, bitcoin would surge to $20,000 after taking cues from the Fed’s dovish sentiment.
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Digibyte: Exemplifying what a DAO should look like

Outside of its potential to scale, speed, fees, etc - Digibyte has shown the world the potential of DAOs (Decentralized Autonomous Organizations) & how they can function at a high level. Digibyte's ability to solve technical problems, innovate & efficiently operate with no traditional company structure is remarkable.
The amount of talent & worldwide reach of the DGB community is incredible & the best part is it is all organic. No regulation or government can stop it.
The way I see it, Digibyte is like bitcoin on steroids, built on the right decentralized principles & core UTXO technology.
In a world where we see growing governments, increased centralized control & less individual liberty, I believe one of the major battles over the next few decades will be between the opposing macroeconomic forces of Centralization & Decentralization. Digibyte is on the front lines of that battle & G-d willing all the hard work is going to pay off.
Happy Hanukkah, Merry Christmas & Happy New year to everybody in the Digibyte community, May G-d help guide us all to wisdom, peace & prosperity.
Best Regards,
Derek R. Halpern

submitted by Dhalpsdadocta to Digibyte [link] [comments]

The New Crypto Order & Escaping Financial Repression

The Vigilante’s View
It is our first issue in months that bitcoin hasn’t hit an all-time high! And it’s the last issue of the year. And what a year for cryptos it was.
To put it in perspective, bitcoin could fall 90% from current levels and it will still have outperformed stocks, bonds and real estate in 2017.
Bitcoin started 2017 at $960.79.
At the time of this writing it is near $13,000 for a gain of 1,250% in 2017.
And, bitcoin was actually one of the worst performing cryptocurrencies in our TDV portfolio in 2017!
Ethereum (ETH) started 2017 at $8. It has since hit over $800 for a nice 10,000% gain in 2017.
That’s pretty good, but not as good as Dash which started the year at $11.19 and recently hit $1,600 for a nearly 15,000% gain.
I hope many of you have participated in these amazing gains! If not, or you are new, don’t worry there will be plenty more opportunities in the years ahead.
It won’t all be just home runs though… in fact, some of the cryptos that have performed so well to date may go down dramatically or collapse completely in the coming years.
I’ll point out further below why Lightning Network is not the answer to Bitcoin Core’s slow speeds and high costs. And, I’ll look ahead to 2018 and how we could already be looking beyond blockchains.
Yes, things are moving so fast that blockchain just became known to your average person this year… and could be nearly extinct by next year.
That’s why it is important to stick with us here at TDV to navigate these choppy free market waters!
New Years Reflection On The Evolution Of Consensus Protocols
Sooner or later crypto will humble you by its greatness. Its vastness is accompanied by a madness that is breathtaking, because you quickly realize that there is no stopping crypto from taking over the world. The moment you think you have everything figured out, is the moment the market will surprise you.
We are for the first time living and witnessing the birth of the first worldwide free market. Throughout this rampage of innovation, we all are implicitly aiming for the best means of harnessing consensus. As we leave this bountiful 2017 and aim at 2018, it is important for us to meditate and appreciate the progress we have made in transforming the world through the decentralization of consensus. It is also important to reflect on the changes in consensus building we have partaken in and those yet to come.
Consensus is the agreement that states “this is what has occurred, and this is what hasn’t happened.”
Throughout the vastness of history, we humans have only really had access to centralized means for consensus building. In the centralized world, consensus has been determined by banks, states, and all kinds of central planners. As our readers know, any centralized party can misuse their power, and their consensus ruling can become unfair. In spite of this, many individuals still praise the effectiveness of consensus building of centralized systems.
People from antiquity have had no other option but to trust these central planners. These systems of control have created still-water markets where only a few are allowed to compete. This lack of competition resulted in what we now can objectively view as slow innovation. For many, centralized consensus building is preferred under the pretense of security and comfort. Unfortunately, these same individuals are in for a whole lot of discomfort now that the world is innovating on top of the first decentralized consensus building technology, the blockchain.
Everything that has occurred since the inception of bitcoin has shocked central planners because for the first time in history they are lost; they no longer hold power. We now vote with our money. We choose what we find best as different technologies compete for our money.
What we are witnessing when we see the volatility in crypto is nothing more than natural human motion through price. The innovation and volatility of the crypto market may seem unorthodox to some, because it is. For the first time in history we are in a true free market. The true free market connects you to everybody and for this reason alone the market shouldn’t surprise us for feeling “crazy.” Volatility is a sign of your connection to a market that is alive. Radical innovation is a sign of a market that is in its infancy still discovering itself.
In juxtaposing centralized consensus building with decentralized consensus building, I cannot keep myself from remembering some wise biblical words; “ And no one pours new wine into old wineskins. Otherwise, the new wine will burst the skins; the wine will run out and the wineskins will be ruined.” – Luke 5:37
The centralized legacy financial system is akin to old wineskins bursting to shreds by the new wine of crypto. Decentralized consensus building has no need for central planners. For example, think about how ludicrous it would be for someone to ask government for regulation after not liking something about crypto. Sorry, there is no central planner to protect you; even the mathematical protocols built for us to trust are now competing against one another for our money.
These new mathematical protocols will keep competing against one another as they provide us with new options in decentralizing consensus. As we look unto 2018, it is important that we as investors begin to critically engage and analyze “blockchain-free cryptocurrencies.”
HASHGRAPHS, TANGLES AND DAGS
Blockchain-free cryptocurrencies are technologies composed of distributed databases that use different tools to achieve the same objectives as blockchains.
The top contenders in the realm of blockchain-free cryptos are DAGs (Directed Acyclic Graphs) such as Swirlds’ Hashgraph, ByteBall’s DAG, and IOTA’s Tangle. These blockchain-free cryptos are also categorized as belonging to the 3 rd generation of cryptocurrencies. These technologies promise to be faster, cheaper, and more efficient than blockchain cryptocurrencies.
Blockchains were the first means of creating decentralized consensus throughout the world. In the blockchain, the majority of 51% determine the consensus. The limits of blockchains stem from their inherent nature, whereupon every single node/participant needs to know all of the information that has occurred throughout the whole blockchain economy of a given coin.
This opens up blockchains to issues akin to the ones we have been exposed to in regards to Bitcoin’s scaling. It is important to make a clear distinction in the language used between blockchains and blockchain-freecryptocurrencies. When we speak about blockchains it is more proper to speak about its transactionconsensus as “decentralized”, whereas with blockchain-free cryptocurrencies it is best if we refer to transaction consensus as “distributed.”
Swirlds’ Hashgraph incorporates a radical and different approach to distributing consensus. Swirlds claims that their new approach will solve scaling and security issues found on blockchains. They use a protocol called “Gossip about Gossip.” Gossip refers to how computers communicate with one another in sending information.
In comparison to the Blockchain, imagine that instead of all of the nodes receiving all of the transactions categorized in the past ten minutes, that only a few nodes shared their transaction history with other nodes near them. The Hashgraph team explains this as “calling any random node and telling that node everything you know that it does not know.” That is, in Hashgraph we would be gossiping about the information we are gossiping; i.e., sending to others throughout the network for consensus.
Using this gossiped information builds the Hashgraph. Consensus is created by means of depending on the gossips/rumors that come to you and you pass along to other nodes. Hashgraph also has periodic rounds which review the circulating gossips/rumors.
Hashgraph is capable of 250,000+ Transactions Per Second (TPS), compared to Bitcoin currently only allowing for 7 TPS. It is also 50,000 times faster than Bitcoin. There is no mention of a coin on their white paper. At this moment there is no Hashgraph ICO, beware of scams claiming that there is. There is however a growing interest in the project along with a surge of app development.
IOTAs DAG is known as the Tangle. Contrary to Hashgraph, IOTA does have its own coin known as MIOTA, currently trading around the $3 mark. There are only 2,779,530,283 MIOTA in existence. The Tangle was also created to help alleviate the pains experienced with Blockchain scaling. IOTAs Tangle creates consensus on a regional level; basically neighbors looking at what other neighbors are doing.
As the tangle of neighbors grows with more participants the security of the system increases, along with the speed of confirmation times. IOTA has currently been criticized for its still lengthy confirmation times and its current levels of centralization via their Coordinators. This centralization is due to the fact that at this moment in time the main team works as watchtower to oversee how Tangle network grows so that it does not suffer from attacks.
Consensus is reached within IOTA by means of having each node confirm two transactions before that same node is able to send a given transaction. This leads to the mantra of “the more people use IOTA, the more transactions get referenced and confirmed.” This creates an environment where transactional scaling has no limits. IOTA has no transaction fees and upon reaching high adoption the transactions ought to be very fast.
Another promising aspect about IOTA is that it has an integrated quantum-resistant algorithm, the Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme, that would protect IOTA against an attack of future quantum computers. This without a doubt provides IOTA with much better protection against an adversary with a quantum computer when compared to Bitcoin.
ByteBall is IOTA’s most direct competitor. They both possess the same transaction speed of 100+ TPS, they both have their own respective cryptocurrencies, and they both have transparent transactions. ByteBall’s token is the ByteBall Bytes (GBYTE), with a supply of 1,000,000; currently trading at around $700. ByteBall aims to service the market with tamper proof storage for all types of data. ByteBall’s DAG also provides an escrow like system called “conditional payments;” which allows for conditional clauses before settling transactions.
Like IOTA, ByteBall is also designed to scale its transaction size to meet the needs of a global demand. ByteBall provides access to integrated bots for transactions which includes the capacity for prediction markets, P2P betting, P2P payments in chat, and P2P insurance. ByteBall’s initial coin distribution is still being awarded to BTC and Bytes holders according to the proportional amounts of BTC or Bytes that are held per wallet. IOTA, ByteBall and Hashgraph are technologies that provide us with more than enough reasons to be hopeful for 2018. In terms of the crypto market, you don’t learn it once. You have to relearn it every day because its development is so infant. If you are new to crypto and feel lost at all know that you are not alone. These technologies are constantly evolving with new competitive options in the market.
As the technologies grow the ease for adoption is set to grow alongside innovation. We are all new to this world and we are all as much in shock of its ingenuity as the next newbie. Crypto is mesmerizing not just for its volatility which is a clear indication of how connected we are now to one another, but also because of the social revolution that it represents. We are experiencing the multidirectional growth of humanity via the free market.
Meanwhile Bitcoin Is Turning Into Shitcoin
It is with a great degree of sadness that I see bitcoin is on the cusp of destroying itself. Bitcoin Core, anyway. Bitcoin Cash may be the winner from all of this once all is said and done.
Whether by design or by accident, bitcoin has become slow and expensive.
Many people point out that IF the market were to upgrade to Segwit that all would be fine. I’ll explain further below why many market participants have no incentive to upgrade to Segwit… meaning that the implementation of Segwit has been a massively risky guess that so far has not worked.
Others say that the Lightning Network (LN) will save bitcoin. I’ll point out below why that will not happen.
Lightning Networks And The Future Of Bitcoin Core
If you’ve been following bitcoin for any length of time, you’re probably aware of the significant dispute over how to scale the network. The basic problem is that although bitcoin could be used at one time to buy, say, a cup of coffee, the number of transactions being recorded on the network bid up the price per transaction so much that actually sending BTC cost more than the cup of coffee itself. Indeed, analysis showed that there were many Bitcoin addresses that had such small BTC holdings that the address itself couldn’t be used to transfer it to a different address. These are referred to as “unspendable addresses.”
In the ensuing debate, the “big blockers” wanted to increase the size of each block in the chain in order to allow for greater transaction capacity. The “small blockers” wanted to reduce the size of each transaction using a technique called Segregated Witness (SegWit) and keep the blocks in the chain limited to 1MB.
SegWit reduces the amount of data in each transaction by around 40-50%, resulting in an increased capacity from 7 transactions per second to perhaps 15.
The software engineers who currently control the Bitcoin Core code repository have stated that what Bitcoin needs is “off-chain transactions.” To do this, they have created something called Lightning Networks (LN), based on an software invention called the “two-way peg.” Put simply, the two-way peg involves creating an escrow address in Bitcoin where each party puts some bitcoin into the account, and then outside the blockchain, they exchange hypothetical Bitcoin transactions that either of them can publish on Bitcoin’s blockchain in order to pull their current agreed-upon balance out of the escrow address.
Most layman explanations of how this works describe the protocol as each party putting in an equal amount of Bitcoin into the escrow. If you and I want to start transacting off-chain, so we can have a fast, cheap payment system, we each put some Bitcoin in a multi-party address. I put in 1 BTC and you put in 1 BTC, and then we can exchange what are essentially cryptographic contracts that either of us can reveal on the bitcoin blockchain in order to exit our agreement and get our bitcoin funds.
Fortunately, it turns out that the video’s examples don’t tell the whole story. It’s possible for the escrow account to be asymmetric. See:. That is, one party can put in 1 BTC, while the other party puts in, say, 0.0001 BTC. (Core developer and forthcoming Anarchapulco speaker Jimmy Song tells us that there are game theoretic reasons why you don’t want the counterparty to have ZERO stake.)
Great! It makes sense for Starbucks to participate with their customers in Lightning Networks because when their customers open an LN channel (basically a gift card) with them for $100, they only have to put in $1 worth of Bitcoin. Each time the customer transacts on the Lightning Network, Starbucks gets an updated hypothetical transaction that they can use to cash out that gift card and collect their bitcoin.
The elephant in the room is: transaction fees. In order to establish the escrow address and thereby open the LN channel, each party has to send some amount of bitcoin to the address. And in order to cash out and get the bitcoin settlement, one party also has to initiate a transaction on the bitcoin blockchain. And to even add funds to the channel, one party has to pay a transaction fee.
Right now fees on the bitcoin blockchain vary widely and are extremely volatile. For a 1-hour confirmation transaction, the recommended fee from one wallet might be $12 US, while on another it’s $21 US. For a priority transaction of 10-20 minutes, it can range from $22-30 US. Transactions fees are based on the number of bytes in the transaction, so if both parties support SegWit (remember that?) then the fee comes down by 40-50%. So it’s between $6 and $10 US for a one hour transaction and between $11-15 for a 15 minute transaction. (SegWit transactions are prioritized by the network to some degree, so actual times may be faster)
But no matter what, both the customer and the merchant have to spend $6 each to establish that they will have a relationship and either of them has to spend $6 in order to settle out and get their bitcoin. Further, if the customer wants to “top off” their virtual gift card, that transaction costs another $6. And because it adds an address to the merchant’s eventual settlement, their cost to get their Bitcoin goes up every time that happens, so now it might cost them $9 to get their bitcoin.
Since these LN channels are essentially digital gift cards, I looked up what the cost is to retailers to sell acustomer a gift card. The merchant processor Square offers such gift cards on their retailer site. Their best price is $0.90 per card.
So the best case is that Lightning Networks are 600% more expensive than physical gift cards to distribute, since the merchant has to put a transaction into the escrow address. Further, the customer is effectively buying the gift card for an additional $6, instead of just putting up the dollar amount that goes on the card.
But it gets worse. If you get a gift card from Square, they process the payments on the card and periodically deposit cash into your bank account for a percentage fee. If you use the Lightning Network, you can only access your Bitcoin by cancelling the agreement with the customer. In other words, you have to invalidate their current gift card and force them to spend $6 on a new one! And it costs you $6 to collect your funds and another $6 to sell the new gift card!
I’m sure many of you have worked in retail. And you can understand how this would be financially infeasible. The cost of acquiring a new customer, and the amount of value that customer would have to stake just to do business with that one merchant, would be enormous to make any financial sense.
From time immemorial, when transaction costs rise, we see the creation of middlemen.
Merchants who can’t afford to establish direct channels with their customers will have to turn to middlemen, who will open LN channels for them. Instead of directly backing and cashing out their digital gift cards, they will establish relationships with entities that consolidate transactions, much like Square or Visa would do today.
Starbucks corporate or individual locations might spend a few USD on opening a payment channel with the middleman, and then once a month spend 6 USD to cash out their revenues in order to cover accounts payable.
In the meantime, the middleman also has to offer the ability to open LN channels for consumers. This still happens at a fixed initial cost, much like the annual fee for a credit card in the US. They would continue to require minimum balances, and would offer access to a network of merchants, exactly like Visa and MasterCard today.
This process requires a tremendous amount of capital because although the middleman does not have to stake Bitcoin in the consumer’s escrow account, he does have to stake it in the merchant’s account. In other words, if the Lightning Network middleman wants to do business with Starbucks to the tune of $100,000/month, he needs $100,000 of bitcoin to lock into an escrow address. And that has to happen for every merchant.
Because every month (or so) the merchants have to cash out of their bitcoin to fiat in order to pay for their cost of goods and make payroll. Even if their vendors and employees are paid in bitcoin and they have LN channels open with them, someone somewhere will want to convert to fiat, and trigger a closing channel creating a cascading settlement effect that eventually arrives at the middleman. Oh, and it triggers lots of bitcoin transactions that cost lots of fees.
Did I mention that each step in the channel is expecting a percentage of the value of the channel when it’s settled? This will come up again later.
Again, if you’ve worked in the retail business, you should be able to see how infeasible this would be. You have to buy inventory and you have to sell it to customers and every part that makes the transaction more expensive is eating away at your margins.
Further, if you’re the middleman and Starbucks closes out a channel with a $100,000 stake where they take $95,000 of the bitcoin, how do you re-open the channel? You need another $95,000 in capital. You have revenue, of course, from the consumer side of your business. Maybe you have 950 consumers that just finished off their $100 digital gift cards. So now you can cash them out to bitcoin for just $5700 in transaction fees, and lose 5.7% on the deal.
In order to make money in that kind of scenario, you have to charge LN transaction fees. And because your loss is 5.7%, you need to charge in the range of 9% to settle Lightning Network transactions. Also, you just closed out 950 customers who now have to spend $5700 to become your customer again while you have to spend $5700 to re-acquire them as customers. So maybe you need to charge more like 12%.
If you approached Starbucks and said “you can accept Bitcoin for your customers and we just need 12% of the transaction,” what are the odds that they would say yes? Even Visa only has the balls to suggest 3%, and they have thousands and thousands of times as many consumers as bitcoin.
The entire mission of bitcoin was to be faster, cheaper and better than banks, while eliminating centralized control of the currency. If the currency part of Bitcoin is driven by “off-chain transactions” while bitcoin itself remains expensive and slow, then these off-chain transactions will become the territory of centralized parties who have access to enormous amounts of capital and can charge customers exorbitant rates. We know them today as banks.
Even for banks, we have to consider what it means to tie up $100,000/month for a merchant account. That only makes sense if the exchange rate of bitcoin grows faster than the cost of retaining Bitcoin inventory. It costs nothing to store Bitcoin, but it costs a lot to acquire it. At the very least the $6 per transaction to buy it, plus the shift in its value against fiat that’s based on interest rates. As a result, it only makes sense to become a Lightning Network middleman if your store of value (bitcoin) appreciates at greater than the cost of acquiring it (interest rate of fiat.) And while interest rates are very low, that’s not a high bar to set. But to beat it, Bitcoin’s exchange rate to fiat has to outpace the best rate available to the middleman by a factor exceeding the opportunity cost of other uses of that capital.
Whatever that rate is, for bitcoin, the only reason the exchange rate changes is new entry of capital into the “price” of bitcoin. For that to work, bitcoin’s “price” must continue to rise faster than the cost of capital for holding it. So far this has happened, but it’s a market gamble for it to continue.
Since it happens because of new capital entering into the bitcoin network and thus increasing the market cap, this results in Bitcoin Core becoming the very thing that its detractors accuse it of: a Ponzi scheme. The cost of transacting in Bitcoin becomes derived from the cost of holding bitcoin and becomes derived from the cost of entering bitcoin.
Every middleman has to place a bet on the direction of bitcoin in a given period. And in theory, if they think the trend is against Bitcoin, then they’ll cash out and shut down all the payment channels that they transact. If they bought bitcoin at $15,000, and they see it dropping to $13,000 — they’ll probably cash out their merchant channels and limit their risk of a further drop. The consumer side doesn’t matter so much because their exposure is only 1%, but the merchant side is where they had to stake everything.
If you’re wondering why this information is not widely known, it’s because most bitcoin proponents don’t transact in bitcoin on a regular basis. They may be HODLing, but they aren’t doing business in bitcoin.
Through Anarchapulco, TDV does frequent and substantial business in bitcoin, and we’ve paid fees over $150 in order to consolidate ticket sale transactions into single addresses that can be redeemed for fiat to purchase stage equipment for the conference.
For Bitcoin to be successful at a merchant level via Lightning Networks, we will have to see blockchain transactions become dramatically cheaper. If they return to the sub-$1 range, we might have a chance with centralized middlemen, but only with a massive stabilization of volatility. If they return to $0.10, we might have a chance with direct channels.
Otherwise, Lightning Networks can’t save bitcoin as a means of everyday transaction. And since that takes away its utility, it might very well take away the basis of its value and bitcoin could find itself truly being a tulip bubble.
One final note: there are a some parties for whom all these transactions are dramatically cheaper. That is the cryptocurrency exchanges. Because they are the entry and exit points for bitcoin-to-fiat, they can eliminate a layer of transaction costs and thus offer much more competitive rates — as long as you keep your bitcoin in their vaults instead of securing it yourselves.
Sending it out of their control lessens their competitive advantage against other means of storage. It comes as no surprise, then, that they are the least advanced in implementing the SegWit technology that would improve transaction costs and speed. If you buy bitcoin on Poloniex, it works better for them if it’s expensive for you to move that coin to your Trezor.
In fact, an exchange offering Lightning Network channels to merchants could potentially do the following…
1) Stake bitcoins in channels with merchants. These coins may or may not be funds that are held by their customers. There is no way to know.
2) Offer customers “debit card” accounts for those merchants that are backed by the Lightning network
3) Establish middle addresses for the customer accounts and the merchant addresses on the Lightning Network.
4) Choose to ignore double-spends between the customer accounts and the merchant addresses, because they don’t actually have to stake the customer side. They can just pretend to since they control the customer’s keys.
5) Inflate their bitcoin holdings up to the stake from the merchants, since the customers will almost never cash out in practice.
In other words, Lightning Networks allow exchanges a clear path to repeating Mtgox; lie to the consumer about their balance while keeping things clean with the merchant. In other words, establish a fractional reserve approach to bitcoin.
So, to summarize, Bitcoin Core decided increasing the blocksize from 1mb to 2-8mb was “too risky” and decided to create Segwit instead which the market has not adopted. When asked when bitcoin will be faster and less expensive to transfer most Bitcoin Core adherents say the Lightning Network will fix the problems.
But, as I’ve just shown, the LN makes no sense for merchants to use and will likely result in banks taking over LN nodes and making BTC similar to Visa and Mastercard but more expensive. And, will likely result in exchanges becoming like banks of today and having fractional reserve systems which makes bitcoin not much better than the banking system of today.
Or, people can switch to Bitcoin Cash, which just increased the blocksize and has much faster transaction times at a fraction of the cost.
I’ve begun to sell some of my bitcoin holdings because of what is going on. I’ve increased my Bitcoin Cash holdings and also increased my holdings of Dash, Monero, Litecoin and our latest recommendation, Zcash.
Other News & Crypto Tidbits
When bitcoin surpassed $17,600 in December it surpassed the total value of the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (SDR) currency.
Meanwhile, Alexei Kireyev of the IMF put out his working paper, “ The Macroeconomics of De-Cashing ,” where he advises abolishing cash without having the public aware of the process.
Countries such as Russia are considering creating a cryptocurrency backed by oil to get around the US dollar and the US dollar banking system. Venezuela is as well although we highly doubt it will be structured properly or function well given the communist government’s track record of destroying two fiat currencies in the last decade.
To say that the US dollar is being attacked on every level is not an understatement. Cryptocurrencies threaten the entire monetary and financial system while oil producing countries look to move away from the US dollar to their own oil backed cryptocurrency.
And all this as bitcoin surpassed the value of the IMF’s SDR in December and in 2017 the US dollar had its largest drop versus other currencies since 2003.
And cryptocurrency exchanges have begun to surpass even the NASDAQ and NYSE in terms of revenue. Bittrex, as one example, had $3 billion in volume on just one day in December. At a 0.5% fee per trade that equaled $15m in revenue in just one day. If that were to continue for 365 days it would mean $5.4 billion in annual revenue which is more than the NASDAQ or NYSE made this year.
Conclusion
I never would have guessed how high the cryptocurrencies went this year. My price target for bitcoin in 2017 was $3,500! That was made in late 2016 when bitcoin was near $700 and many people said I was crazy.
Things are speeding up much faster than even I could have imagined. And it is much more than just making money. These technologies, like cryptocurrencies, blockchains and beyond connect us in a more profound way than Facebook would ever be able to. We are now beginning to be connected in ways we never even thought of; and to some degree still do not understand. These connections within this completely free market are deep and meaningful.
This is sincerely beautiful because we are constantly presented with an ever growing buffet of competing protocols selling us their best efforts in providing harmony within the world. What all of these decentralized and distributed consensus building technologies have in common is that they connect us to the world and to each other. Where we are going we don’t need foolish and trite Facebook’s emojis.
As we close a successful 2017 we look with optimism towards a much more prosperous 2018. The Powers That Shouldn’t Be (TPTSB) can’t stop us. As we move forward note how much crypto will teach you about ourselves and the world. In a radical free market making our own bets will continue to be a process of self discovery. Crypto will show us the contours of our fears, the contours of our greed, and will constantly challenge us to do our best with the knowledge we have.
Remember, randomness and innovation are proper to the happenstance nature of a true digital free market.
Happy New Year fellow freedom lovers!
And, as always, thank you for subscribing!
Jeff Berwick
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